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Contents                                                                                            

page

MODULE 1. Reading and Summarizing Information……………….10                   

         Text 1. Particle Physicists Join Battle against Cancer………..........................11

         Text 2. Are Recycled PCs Harming the Earth?..................................................13        

         Text 3. Nanotube Circuits……………………………………………………..17                                                                        

Text  4. USB Flash Drives Revolutionize Portable Storage but Pose Security       Risks for Organizations………………………………………………………..19  

Text 5. How to Really Trust a Mathematical Proof ………………………......22                               

Progress Test…………………………………………………………………..27                                                                                          

MODULE  2. Discussing Research………………………………………….30                                                      

         Unit 1. Field of Science and Research………………………………………...30                                               

         Unit 2. Research Problem……………………………………………………..31                                                                  

         Unit 3. Historical Background of Research Problem……………………….....33                         

         Unit 4. Current Research: Purpose and Methods……………………………...36                               

         Unit 5. Current Research: Results and Conclusion……………………………38                             

         Unit 6. Conference  Participation……………………………………………...40                                                     

          Unit 7. How to Chair a Conference……………………………………………42                                                   

         Unit 8.  Presenting a Paper…………………………………………………….44

Communicative Practice………………………………………………………51                                                                

MODULE  3. Writing Research Papers……………………………………53                                                     

         Unit1. Gathering Data  and Writing Summary Notes….……………………...53                                           

         Unit 2. Organizing Ideas……………………………………………….……...54                                                                                  

         Unit 3. Writing a Paper: Structure, Linguistics and Style………………..……54                            

         Unit 4. Proofreading the Paper………………………………………………...71                                                                  

         Unit 5. Acknowledging Sources…….………………………………………...72                                                                 

         Unit 6. An Abstract……………………………………………………………72

  Communicative Practice………………………………………………………75                                                                                   

MODULE 4. Writing Letters…………………………………………………76                                                                 

Unit 1. А Letter Layout………………………………………………………..76

Communicative Practice………………………………………………………83                                                                              

Unit 2. Letters of Invitation……………………………………………………84

Communicative Practice………………………………………………………92                                                                         

Unit 3. Letters of Request……………………………………………………..93

Communicative Practice………………………………………………………99                                                                          

Unit 4. Letters of Inquiry….…………………………………………………..99

Communicative Practice……………………………………………………..105                                                                          

Unit 5. Letters of Thanks…………………………………………………….106

Communicative Practice……………………………………………………..108                                                                    

MODULE 5. THE Grammar SECTION………………………………………..109                                                 

         Unit1. The Passive Voice…………………………………………………….109

  Progress Test………………………………………………………………... 113                                                          

         Unit 2. The Infinitive…………………………………………………………114

  Progress Test…………………………………………………………………118                                                                   

         Unit 3.  The Gerund………………………………………………………….119

  Progress Test…………………………………………………………………124                                                                         

         Unit 4.The Participle…………………………………………………………125

    Progress Test………………………………………………………………....131                                                          

Unit 5. Modal Verbs………………………………………………………….131

Progress Test…………………………………………………………………132                                                                      

         Unit 6. The Subjunctive Mood …………........................................................133

  Progress Test…………………………………………………………………134

Unit 7. Conditionals………………………………………………………….134

  Progress Test…………………………………………………………………136                                

Appendices………………………………………………………………………137                                                                                        

KEYS……………………………………………………………………………….170                                                                                                      

List of Materials Used………………………………………………………………178                                                                            

                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MODULE 1. READING AND SUMMARIZING INFORMATION

When doing research it is vitally important to be able to read, summarize information gathered from various sources. Often the title of an article will give the reader insight into the paper’s content, but further reading and analysis is necessary to understand the major points of the article.

Many writers have the trouble determining the value of a particular paper or book. To evaluate a paper in a periodical, read:

  1. The title. Look for code(key) words that have relevance to your topic before you start reading the paper.
  2. An abstract. If an abstract of the paper is available, read it before going in search of the printed paper. If a printed paper is preceded by an abstract, read it first. Reading an abstract is the best way to decide if an essay or a book will serve your specific needs.
    1. The opening paragraphs. If the opening of a paper shows no relevance to your study, abandon the paper.
    2. The closing paragraphs. If the opening of a paper seems promising, skip to the closing and read it for relevance. Read the entire paper only if the opening and the closing encourage you.

Evaluating a book requires a more diligent investigation than does evaluating an article in a periodical. The following additional items must also be checked:

  1. The table of contents. A book’s TOC may reveal chapters that directly address your topic. Often, only one chapter is useful.
  2. The preface or introduction. An author’s preface serves as a critical overview of the entire book, pinpointing the primary subject of the text and the peculiar approach of this author. Read the preface to discover the author’s purpose.
  3. The index. A book’s index will list names and terminology with page numbers for all items mentioned within the text.

 

TASK: Choose a paper from a journal and evaluate whether it is related to the subject of your research. What makes you think that it is relevant to your topic?

 

The following articles may be used to practice reading and summarizing information.

Text 1

1.1.         Read the title and the subtitles of the article and think what it might be about. 

 

Particle Physicists Join Battle against Cancer

Technologies originally developed for experiments in particle physics are being used to diagnose and treat cancer

Particle physicists spend most of their time exploring the fundamental properties of matter, often with accelerators that cost hundreds of millions of pounds. However, some are also engaged in an altogether more down-to-earth activity – developing new technologies for medical applications. This activity has a long history of success, which is why about 130 physicists and healthcare professionals met in London recently to discuss “the future of medical imaging and radiotherapy”. A major theme at the meeting was how technology from particle physics could be used to diagnose and treat cancer.

 “I don’t think there is any discipline that has gained so much from technology developed for applied physics as cancer diagnosis and therapy,” says Alan Horwich of the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) and the Royal Marsden Hospital in London. “There is considerable potential for improving cancer cure rates over the next 10 to 15 years by the application of emerging imaging technologies to radiotherapy.”

According to Horwich, who is director of clinical research and development at the ICR, some 270000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed in the UK every year, but less than half of the cases involving the most common types of cancer – breast, prostate, lung and bowel – are cured. He told the meeting that the accuracy of radiotherapy needed to be improved because that would reduce the exposure of normal tissue to potentially harmful levels of radiation and allow higher doses to be directed at the tumour. He also said it is important to understand how to target the most resistant parts of a tumour.

Meeting of minds

Technology developed by particle physicists has already led to a number of breakthroughs in medical imaging, including positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed X-ray tomography (CT) and molecular imaging. In addition, linear accelerators are used to provide energetic photons for radiotherapy. The London meeting was organized by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) to explore new technologies that could be added to this list and discuss their possible commercialization.

Nathan Hill, PPARC’s industry co-ordinator, says that the council is keen to encourage collaborations between academics and industry, and that it has already set up 14 collaborative projects in the field of healthcare. “Several of these collaborations have resulted in the development of successful spin-out companies,” he said, “bringing the physics technology to the medical market place.”

Among the physics-based applications discussed at the meeting were the use of statistical analysis to improve image quality, a hand-held gamma camera for cancer diagnosis and the use of artificial neural networks to analyse cancer survival rates. Another application involves the development of a microstrip dosimeter that should allow clinicians to target tumour more precisely and minimize damage to healthy tissue.

(Edwin Cartlidge, Physics World, June 2005)

 

1.2.         Go back to the text and point out the information concerned with:

  • the importance of the scientific advance in particle physics;
  • the possible practical applications of imaging technologies to radiotherapy;
    • the necessity of improving the accuracy of radiotherapy;
    • the technological breakthroughs.
    • some other physics-based applications of new technologies.

1.3.                                                                                         Summarize the content of the article using the phrases below.  

The article reports on … .

Much attention is given to … .

It is reported that … .

It is pointed out that … .

The article claims that … .

The article is of interest … .

 

 

Text 2

 

2.1.         Read the article and indicate the paragraphs that describe:

  • possible dangerous effects of improper recycling methods on pollution levels and people’s health;
  • harmful effects of modern personal computers;
  • safety check results of some recycling centers;
  • measures that should be taken to solve the problem of  high-tech waste disposal.

 

 

Are Recycled PCs Harming the Earth?

For years, environmentalists and responsible PC makers have encouraged computer users to recycle their old computers instead of simply throwing them out. Millions of environmentally loyal consumers and businesses have heeded the call. Instead of tossing their old PCs and other hardware into a dumpster, these users have donated them to charitable or given them to recycling centers.

 In the United States today, there are thousands of individual computer recycling centers in operation. Many of them keep the old computers in house, stripping away parts that can be used, then safely recycling the unusable parts.

More often, however, recyclers ship the old hardware overseas, and millions of tons end up in China, India, and developing nations. There, often in impoverished villages with little or no other industry, workers dismantle old PCs by hand, exposing themselves to harmful chemicals and releasing thousands of pollutants into the air, water, and the ground.

 Now, environmentalists have issued a new plea: that responsible governments and industries work together to stop this practice. If it continues unabated, experts argue, we can expect thousands of recycling workers to become ill, and for pollution levels to rise to unprecedented levels in areas where improper recycling methods are used. 

Understanding the problem

 Despite their increasing user-friendliness, computers are anything but friendly to the environment. Today’s computers contain any number of agents that can be harmful to the environment, if not processed correctly. The average cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor, for example, contains several pounds of lead, which is a known poison. Further, CRTs can explode if not handled properly, scattering glass fragments and other materials.

 Laptop computers offer their own threats to the environment. The vast majority of portable systems use batteries that contain poisonous heavy metals, such as cadmium. If not disposed of properly, these batteries can become damaged into the environment. A computer’s wires and circuit boards are still another issue. When burned, these components can create toxic fumes. When simply tossed into a landfill, they will last virtually forever.

 These problems are compounded by the fact that millions of obsolete PCs are discarded every year. Only a small fraction of these systems are properly recycled in the United States, because the process is expensive and yields a relatively small amount of reusable components or materials. Recyclers have found it cheaper and easier simply to ship the old PCs to other countries, which take charge of “processing” the hardware and reclaiming usable materials.

 In recent months, environmentalists from developed nations have visited these recycling centers and been alarmed by the conditions they found. Overseas recyclers, however, generally do not follow standard practices for recycling, placing workers, communities, and the environment at risk. In some cases, workers strip old computers with their bare hands and minimal tools; around them, fires burn discarded plastic and silicon and fill the air with a constant haze of toxic fumes and ash. Little care is taken to protect local water supplies or food sources from toxins.

Finding solutions

  In the past few months, several European countries and Japan passed laws declaring waste (such as old computer hardware) cannot be exported. This forces recyclers to handle cast-off computers properly instead of dumping them somewhere else.

 At a global level, the United Nation’s Environmental Program has overseen the Basel Convention for several years. This international group studies the problem of global environmental hazards and develops treaties; member nations pledge to follow strict guidelines for dealing with various kinds of waste. The Basel Convention is working on strengthening its coverage of “e-waste”, or pollution stemming from technology components. In the United States, a task force of lawmakers and computer-industry experts is working on legislation governing the disposal of high-tech waste. There is no timetable for passing that legislation, however. Traditionally, American computer makers have opposed such legislation, but have since joined in the push for reform. Despite their willingness to help, however, the issue of recycling forces manufacturers to face a new problem. That is, who will pay for recycling? One idea is for computer makers to build a recycling fee into the price of new computers. Then, at the end of a computer’s life, the user could return it to the manufacturer or to an approved PC recycler, with the recycling fee already paid up-front.

 PC makers worry about a consumer backlash against such a fee, and environmentalists worry that despite paying such a fee, many consumers will simply toss their old PCs into the trash without attempting to recycle them. No matter what solution develops, consumers will have to bear at least a portion of the cost.

(http://www.interconrecycling.com/recycled_pc.htm)

 

2.2.         In the paragraphs you have marked in task 2.1 underline the key words and key phrases that express the main points of the paragraphs.

2.3.         Summarize the main points of the whole article using the phrases below:

The article suggests the problem of … .

The effects of … on … are considered.

The article covers such points as … .

It is claimed that … .

The article also claims that … .

The article points out that … .

Attention is given to … .

Attention is also concentrated on … .

 

Text 3

 

3.1.         Look at the title of the article and discuss what you already know about nanotube circuits. Read the article to learn more about this technology.

 

Nanotube Circuits

Carbon nanotubes combine high performance and flexibility for electronics

(1)

New research suggests that networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes printed onto bendable plastic perform well as semiconductors in integrated circuits. Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and Purdue University say that these nanotube networks could replace organic semiconductors in applications such as flexible displays.

(2) Development of flexible electronics has recently focused on organic molecules because, unlike silicon, they are compatible with bendable plastic substrates. Flexible electronics have potential in such applications as low-power electronic newspapers or PDAs that roll up into the size and shape of a pen. The problem with existing organic-electronic devices, however, is that "they aren't well developed for long-term reliability, and they perform far worse than silicon," says John A. Rogers, an engineering professor at UIUC.

(3) Carbon-nanotube networks, on the other hand, combine the performance of silicon with the flexibility of organic films on plastic. Rogers says that the speed of the nanotube device compares favorably with the speed of commercially used single-crystal silicon circuits. The transistors can also switch between on and off states in the range of several kilohertz, which is similar to the range of those used for liquid crystal displays and radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors. However, the on-off current ratio for carbon nanotubes is still a few orders of magnitude lower than that for silicon transistors.

(4) The researchers made the networks by depositing nanotubes onto plastic by standard printing methods, which could lead to low-cost, large-scale fabrication. And the printed circuits can bend to a radius of about five millimeters without compromising the electrical performance of the device. "This method is good for flexible electronics that need to be printed over a large area," says Ali Javey, an assistant professor of electrical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.

(5) Using a technique called transfer printing, the researchers deposited randomly aligned carbon nanotubes onto a 50-micrometer-thick sheet of plastic, and then patterned gold electrodes and other circuit components onto the substrate. Because about one-third of the nanotubes in any network are metallic, the researchers then etched narrow parallel lines through the network with soft lithography. By cutting the nanotubes, they can effectively eliminate the possibility of a purely metallic pathway connecting two electrodes while preserving the performance of the device.

(6) Several challenges still remain before the nanotubes networks are ready for actual products. Devices need to be made in which the performance from device to device doesn't vary; billions of individual nanotubes have to be made with high purity and the right dimensions for optimal performance. The printing process also needs development, says George Gruner, a professor of physics at the University of California, Los Angeles. Gruner suggests that nanotubes could be dissolved into ink and then printed onto plastic. "These devices have to be cheap and disposable," especially for devices like RFID tags in food packaging, he adds.  Rogers's group's immediate goals are to work toward lower power and higher speed in the devices. "We want to push the limits to see how far we can go," he says.

(Lauren Rugani , http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/21119/, July 2008)

 

3.2.         Read paragraph 1 and condense it using the phrases below:

The article deals with the problem of …

The purpose of the research is to …

3.3.         Read paragraphs 2 and 3 that describe the advantages of nanotube networks. Present the content of these paragraphs using the phrases:

A detailed description is given to ….  

It is shown that … .

It is reported that … .

3.4.         Read paragraphs 4 and 5 that describe the main techniques for producing nanotube networks. Compress these paragraphs into statements using the phrases:

It is found that … .

It is said/ recognized that… .

The fact that … is stressed.

3.5.         Read paragraph 6 and name some challenges that still remain unsolved. Present the content of this paragraph using the phrases:

It is believed that… .

The research has given rise to …

3.6.         Summarize the content of the whole article.

 

Text 4

 

4.1.         Read the title of the article and make predictions on its content. Check your predictions.

 

USB Flash Drives Revolutionize Portable Storage but Pose Security Risks for Organizations

Over the last few years USB Flash Drives have become a must-have item for computer users everywhere. We rely on them to transport all kinds of data including letters, spreadsheets, presentations, music and even movies. The capacity, physical size and speed of these drives has increased rapidly, and with that prices have come down making them an affordable accessory rather than luxury item. They have now completely replaced the humble Floppy Disk as the dominant format for re-writeable, portable storage, and rightfully so - Floppy Disks were well past their sell-by date at the turn of the 21st century.

But there are some risks associated with such a small device capable of storing vast amounts of data being kept in the pockets and on the key chains of millions of workers at companies/organizations across the world. Let’s take a look at some of these risks in detail.

The first risk is a loss of productivity; workers could use their USB Flash Drives to bring in software that is not suitable for the workplace, such as games or “joke” applications that could cause disruption. Employees could also use the fast internet access usually provided in the corporate network to download illegal or unsavoury material onto their USB Flash Drives that could damage the company’s reputation and potentially cause spyware or adware infections. The second risk is of workers bringing viruses, trojans, malware or adware into the workplace on USB Flash Drives. An example of this would be an employee with poor security on their home computer bringing a file he/she has been working on at home into the workplace on their USB Flash Drive and plugging it into a company machine. This could expose the corporate network to all kinds of viruses or malicious code that may have been transferred on the USB Flash Drive from an unprotected computer.
The third and most serious risk is the theft of confidential data or “data leakage” as it has come to be known. There have been many cases in the past where workers are given access to confidential information and abuse their position by copying sensitive data onto a USB Flash Drive. If this data is later leaked, it could cause embarrassment to the company involved with the possibility of negative press coverage, and they may even be subject to legal action. There is also the possibility of a USB Flash Drive containing confidential information being lost or misplaced by accident. A worst case scenario would be a USB Flash Drive dropping out of the pocket of a worker when out on their lunch break; this could mean a database with thousands of records of private information falling into the hands of unscrupulous people. There is now a solution to the problem of data leakage - a USB Flash Drive with strong 256-bit AES hardware-based. The SanDisk Cruzer Enterprise, available from Lucid IT Security, is the answer IT professionals needing to protect information on company-issued USB flash drives have been looking for. It is specifically designed to meet the unique USB security, compliance and manageability needs of enterprises. Rather than rely upon users to secure files, it imposes mandatory access control on all files, storing them in a hardware-encrypted, password-protected partition.  The Cruzer Enterprise is also the first secure USB flash drive to fully support Apple Mac OS X computers, and can be initialized from either a Macintosh or a Windows computer. By supporting both Macintosh and Microsoft Windows environments, IT professionals can more effectively use SanDisk Cruzer Enterprise to protect information on company-issued secure USB flash drives across their organizations. Server-side software is also available to manage the Cruzer Enterprise drives-SanDisk CMC (Central Management and Control) adds a higher level of control to Cruzer Enterprise. It centrally manages the drive’s complete lifecycle, from initial user-deployment, through password administration and data backup, and finally to drive termination if lost or stolen.

(Alex Culshaw, http://www.articlesphere.com, January, 2009)

4.2.         Indicate the paragraph that explains the advantages of USB Flash Drives and their popularity with computer users. Read this paragraph and define its main point. Summarize the paragraph in no more than two sentences. Begin with:

The article informs 

The article discusses/analyzes ….

The article raises up a question of…

4.3.         Indicate the paragraphs that describe some of the risks associated with such  small devices. Read them again and condense their content into 3 statements using the phrases:

The article also considers … .

Attention is given to … .

The article touches upon … . .

Particular emphasis is placed on … .

4.4.         Indicate the paragraphs where the solution to the problem of data leakage is suggested. Read these paragraphs and compress their content into statements using the phrases:

A solution to the problem of … is proposed.

Special emphasis is placed on…

The article is of (no) particular interest… .

The article is of (no) professional interest, because… .

4.5.         Summarize the content of the article.

 

Text 5

 

5.1.    Look at the title of the article and think what exactly it is going to be about. Check your guesses.

 

How to Really Trust a Mathematical Proof

Mathematicians develop computer proof-checking systems in order to realize century-old dreams of fully precise, accurate mathematics.

The one source of truth is mathematics. Every statement is a pure logical deduction from foundational axioms, resulting in absolute certainty. Since Andrew Wiles proved Fermat’s Last Theorem, you’d be safe betting your life on it.

Well … in theory. The reality, though, is that mathematicians make mistakes. And as mathematics has advanced, some proofs have gotten immensely long and complex, often drawing on expertise from far-flung areas of math. Errors can easily creep in. Furthermore, some proofs now rely on computer code, and it’s hard to be certain that no bug lurks within, messing up the result.

Bet your life on Wiles’ proof of Fermat? Many mathematicians might decline.

Still, the notion that mathematical statements can be deduced from axioms isn’t nonsense. It’s just that mathematicians don’t spell out every little step. There’s a reason for that: When Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead tried to do so for just the most elementary parts of mathematics, they produced a 2,500-page tome. The result was so difficult to understand that Russell admitted to a friend, “I imagine no human being will ever read through it.”

Where humans falter, computers can sometimes prevail. A group of mathematicians and computer scientists believe that with new proof-validation programs, the dream of a fully spelled-out, rigorous mathematics, with every deduction explicit and correct, can be realized.

Indeed, Freek Wiedijk of Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands says a revolution is already occurring. He writes in the December Notices of the American Mathematical Society that in the future, “most mathematicians will not consider mathematics to be definitive unless it has been fully formalized.”

The first proof-validation programs were created more than 20 years ago. Until recently, though, they were so cumbersome that the only users were the researchers who had created and were trying to improve them. Furthermore, even those researchers were only tackling relatively simple theorems. In the last five years, though, those users have finally been able to verify some remarkably complex and difficult proofs. Before long, they say, ordinary mathematicians will be using these tools as part of their everyday work.

Perhaps the most remarkable success so far came in 2004, when Georges Gonthier, a computer scientist at Microsoft Research in Cambridge, England, verified the proof of the four-color theorem by computer. The problem dates back to 1852, when a college student noticed that only four colors were needed to fill in a map of the countries in England such that no adjacent counties shared a color. It took until 1976 to mathematically prove that four colors were enough for any map. That proof was more than 500 pages long and relied on computers to check nearly 2,000 special cases. Many mathematicians objected to the proof because it was impossible to check by hand.

Gonthier used a proof-checking software package to formalize the entire proof, reducing both the text and the software for the special cases to an enormously long series of simple deductions.

Of course, if the proof-checking software itself has bugs, Gonthier’s verification of the four-color theorem itself could be invalid. To guard against this possibility, the designers of the proof-checking software make the “kernel” of code that implements the axioms and rules of inference as short and simple as possible. One program, HOL Light, has fewer than 500 lines of code in its kernel, few enough that humans can check it by hand. John Harrison, the creator of HOL Light, has also checked the code using other formal proof-checkers!

The software may not be able to produce perfect certainty, but Thomas Hales, a mathematician at the University of Pittsburgh, calls the four-color theorem “one of the most meticulously verified proofs in history.”

Hales is one of the first working mathematicians to embrace the proof-checkers, because he ran up against the limits of mathematical certainty himself. He proved the Kepler Conjecture in 1998, which is another theorem that is simple to state but remarkably hard to prove. The Kepler Conjecture says that the pattern grocers use to stack oranges packs the most oranges into the smallest space. As with the four-color theorem, Hales used a computer to check many, many special cases, and the proof consisted of 300 pages of text and 40,000 lines of computer code.

When he submitted his result for publication, he received only a qualified acceptance. The letter from the editor explained that “the referees put a level of energy into this that is, in my experience, unprecedented.” Nevertheless, the referees ended up only 99 percent certain that the proof was correct. The referees were unable to check the computer code at all.

Hales decided that 99 percent certainty wasn’t good enough for him. He started the “Flyspeck” project (named from the acronym FPK, for Formal Proof of the Kepler Conjecture) to formalize his entire proof. When he began, he estimated that it would take 20 person-years to complete it (i.e., one person working for 20 years, for example, or 10 people working for two years). He says now that he is about halfway through, and his team has indeed devoted about 10 person-years.

Hales and Gonthier are managing to do more than simply check those particular proofs. In the process, they are creating a library of basic formalized results other mathematicians can use to formalize new proofs. Since new proofs always rely on many, many previous proofs, this library provides the essential foundation mathematicians need to efficiently use the proof-verification software programs in their daily work.

Once that library is created, widespread use may not be so far off. Gonthier has been surprised to find that with experience, coding a proof takes little more effort than typesetting an ordinary mathematics article, which mathematicians do regularly. “The actual coding of results seems to go on pretty quickly,” Gonthier says.

The hard part is the early stages, he says, teaching the computer what an early graduate student would know. Mathematicians use many, many tiny results and methods that they never write down explicitly. “Most of what you learn from a textbook is in the exercises,” he says. “An entire part of the theory is something never described literally. If you want to formalize a theory, you have to find a good description for these things.”

Gonthier believes that ordinary mathematicians may start formally verifying their proofs within the decade. Cameron Freer of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is beginning a collaborative project called Vdash that he hopes will inspire many mathematicians to pitch in and help build the basic library of results. Hales warns, though, that this will be a formidable task. “To undertake the formalization of just 100,000 pages of core mathematics would be one of the most ambitious collaborative projects ever undertaken in pure mathematics, the sequencing of a mathematical genome,” he writes.

(Julie Rehmeyer, http://www.sciencenews.org, November, 2008)

 

5.2.         Summarize the article using the following phrases:

The article provides information on … .

The article puts forward the idea ........... .

A careful account is given to … .

The article describes ................. in detail..

The results of ......are presented.

 

PROGRESS TEST:

 

TASK 1: Match the expressions in column A with their Russian equivalents in column B.

 

  1. The paper provides information on…     
  2. It is pointed out…                                    
  3. A detailed description is given to…                      
  4. Particular emphasis is placed on…
  5. It is claimed that…                                   
  6. The paper is of great interest.                   
  7. The paper covers such points as…
  8.  The paper suggests the problem…      
  9.  A careful account is given to…                  

10.  The paper puts forward the idea…            

11.  The paper deals with the problem of…      

12.  It is assumed that…                                

13.  The effect of …on…is discussed…    

14.  Much attention is given to

15.  The paper touches upon…          

a) В статье затрагивается…

b) Много внимания уделено… 

c) Статья выдвигает проблему…         

d) Обсуждается влияние…

e) Предполагается, что…

f) В статье выдвигается идея…

g) Особый акцент сделан на…

h) Утверждается, что…

i) Подробно описывается…

j) Статья информирует о…

k) Подчеркивается, что…

l) Статья рассматривает проблему…

m) Тщательно рассматривается…

n) Статья представляет большой интерес…

o) Статья охватывает такие вопросы как…

 

 

 

 

 

TASK 2: Read and review the article.

 

The bionic age begins 

Neural implants will treat tremors, paralysis, and even memory loss

 Theodore Berger, a Professor of Engineering at the University of Southern California, is ready for the era of the bionic brain. He has spent 30 years developing computer chips that can link with neurons in an effort to compensate for memory loss. The chips that can do it exist. Most of the software exists. The challenge is to make a reliable, long-term connection between the hardware and the wetware - one that is unaffected by a corrosion, scar tissue, or the shifting and dying of cells in the brain.”That’s the big showstopper,” Berger says.

  He is a part of a growing movement of researchers struggling to perfect neural prostheses, devices that employ electrodes to receive signals from and transmit them to the brain. Cyberkinetics, a company cofounded by neuroscientist John Donoghue at Brown University, has begun clinical trials on an implant that can transmit signals from a paralyzed person’s motor cortex to a computer or to a prosthetic limb. Several groups, including one led by Ali Rezai of the Cleveland Clinic Center for Neurological Restoration, have tentatively shown that stimulation of the thalamus can relieve chronic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depression. Similar devices may be able to treat blindness, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. All these applications will depend on solving the connection problem.

 Groups at the University of Arizona and elsewhere have crafted arrays containing 500 or more electrodes, trying to maintain a good link through sheer numbers. Other strategies include building electrodes out of conducting polymers, which are more compatible with neural tissue than are silicon or metal, or coating electrodes with molecules that adhere to brain cells. A team at Emory University is embedding electrodes in glass cones filled with nerve-growth factors that encourage brain cells to sprout more dendrites and axons. Several paralyzed patients using the Emory device have learned to control a computer with their thoughts. But the ideal fix would be an electrode that constantly moves to maintain connections.

 Joel Burdick, a mechanical engineer at Caltech, and his colleagues are developing an electrode array to do just that. Each electrode determines the direction from which the neutron’s signals are strongest. A tiny motor then moves the contact in that direction. The electrodes will be programmed to search for specific types of neural signals-for example, those corresponding to a subject’s desire to move her hand rather than her foot.

 The first prototype of this device, which was successfully tested in monkeys by Burdick’s Caltech colleagues Richard Andersen, had only four electrodes. The motors were mounted outside the skull, and electrodes passed through plugs in the scalp. The Caltech team is now working on downsized versions that will have as many as 100 electrodes and be small enough to be implanted inside the skull, thereby reducing the risk of infection. A comparison set of miniature injectors could administer compounds to inhibit the formation of scar tissue or to stimulate the activity of surrounding neurons. Power will be supplied by an external source that beams radio waves through the skin and skull.

 Andersen is still preparing a second round of animal tests to prove the electrode array works. But ethicists already worry about a day when implants are so effective that even healthy people elect to upgrade, less they fall behind like some obsolete computer.

(John Horgan, Discover magazine, October 2005)

 

TASK 3: Choose to read and review 5 papers from the journals on the subject of your research. Summarise their content. As a class hold a mini-conference and discuss the innovations, research problems and scientific achievements you have learned about.

module 2. discussing research

Unit 1. Field of Science and Research

Active Vocabulary

to do/to carry on/to carry out/to conduct research

to contribute to/to make a contribution to

to influence/to affect/ to have an effect on/ upon

to study/to make studies/to investigate/to explore

to put forward an idea

to suggest an idea/a theory/a hypothesis

to advance/to develop/to modify a theory

to predict/to forecast/to foresee

to accumulate knowledge

field of science/research

a new area of research

current branch/field of research

the latest/ recent achievements/developments/advances

an (a) outstanding/prominent/world-known scientist/researcher

 

TaskS:

  1. Answer the questions:
  2. What is your field of science/research?
  3. What are the current issues in your field of science/research?
  4. Have new areas of research appeared in recent years?
  5. What is your particular area of research?
  6. What are the latest achievements in your field of science/research?
  7. Have any fundamental discoveries been made in your field of science/research in recent years?
  8. Can you name some outstanding researchers in your field of science? What contribution have they made?
  9. Do achievements in your branch of science/research influence everyday life? In what way?
  10. What further developments can you predict in your field of research?

 

  1. Complete the sentences below. Speak about your field of science/ research.
  2. I do research in the field of … .
  3. It is the science/a comparatively new branch of science that studies… .
  4. The field of science/research that I’m concerned with gathers knowledge about …
  5. Major developments include advances in … .
  6. Remarkable advances have been made in … .
  7. The branches of science contributing a lot to progress in my field of research are … .
  8. My current field of science/research is … .
  9. It’s difficult/not difficult to foresee/forecast/predict … .

 

  1. Work in pairs.

Ask for and give information on your field of science and research.

 

Unit 2. Research Problem

Active Vocabulary

the reason for the interest in the problem

due to/ owing to/ thanks to/ because of

to arise from

to increase/ decrease considerably

to be the subject of special/ particular interest

to be studied comprehensively/thoroughly/extensively

to be only outlined

to be mentioned in passing

to be concerned with/ to be engaged in / to deal with/ to consider the problem of

to be interested in

to be of great/ little/ no interest/ importance/ significance/ value/ use

to take up the problem

to work on the problem

to follow/ to stick to the theory/ hypothesis/ concept

to postulate

to differ/ to be different from

a lot of/ little/ no literature is available on research problem

a lot of/ few publications are available on research problem

 

Tasks:

  1. Answer the questions:
  2. What is your research problem?
  3. What problem is of particular interest in your research?
  4. What is the subject of your research?
  5. Why has the interest in this problem increased considerably in recent years?
  6. Do you follow/stick to any theory/hypothesis/concept? What is it?
  7. What concept is your research based on?
  8. How does your research differ from other studies on the same problem?
  9. Are there many publications available on the problem of your research?
  10. Is your research problem described comprehensively/ thoroughly/ extensively in literature?
  11.  Is the problem of your research only outlined/ mentioned in passing?
  12. What are the main aspects of your research problem that have already been considered?

 

  1. Complete the sentences below. Speak about your research problem.
  2. At present/ now/ currently I am studying the problem of … .
  3. The problem I am studying is concerned with … .
  4. There are a lot of/ few/ no publications on the problem of … .
  5. The literature available on the problem of my research only outlines/ mentions in passing/ thoroughly/ extensively describes such aspects as … .
  6. We have taken up the problem of … to prove/investigate …
  7. In solving our problem we follow the hypothesis that … .

 

  1. Work in pairs.

Ask for and give information on your research problem.

 

Unit 3. Historical Background of Research Problem

Active Vocabulary

at that time/in that time period/as early as 19 …

by that time

since that time

in recent years /recently/ lately

over the last/ past few years

in the 1970s/ throughout the 70s/ in the early 1970s/ in the late 1970s/ from 1970 to 1980/ in the year 2000

the first studies/ investigations on the problem

to be the first/ to pioneer/ to initiate

to date back to/ to go back to

to pay attention to

to observe/ to consider

to find/ to discover

to show/ to demonstrate

to assume / to make an assumption/ to suppose

to explain/ to account for

to confirm/ to support

to give rise to

to believe/ to think/ to expect

to remain unsolved

to be poorly/ well understood

to require further effort/ study

to point out the shortcomings/ weak points /gaps/ drawbacks

to stimulate interest in

to add greatly to our knowledge of

to lay the foundation for

 

Tasks:

  1. A.   Answer the questions:
  2. Has your research problem attracted much attention in recent years? Has it been widely studied?
  3. What aspects of the problem have been considered over the last few years?
  4. Who was the first to recognize/ point out the problem?
  5. What aspects of the problem did researchers concentrate on at that time?
  6. When were the first studies on the problem made? In what years?
  7. What time period do the first studies/ observations/ investigations date back to?
  8. When was the problem first studied intensively?
  9. When did interest in the problem increase?
  10. Is the problem well understood at present?
  11.  What aspects of the problem still remain poorly understood/ unsolved?
  12.  Could you point out the gaps or shortcomings in the earlier studies of the problem?

 

  1. B.   Complete the sentences below. Speak about the historical background of your research problem.
  2. In recent years … has greatly increased.
  3. Over the past few years the interest in the problem has been due to the fact that… .
  4. During the last 20 years the interest in … has considerably … .
  5. X. was the first to … the problem of … .
  6. The first studies /observations/ experiments were… .
  7. At present, research is concentrated on … .
  8. Many aspects of the problem still remain … .
  9. It is difficult to point out … and … the problem.

 

  1. C.   Work in pairs.

Ask for and give information on the historical background of the research problems under study.

 

 

 

 

Unit 4. Current Research: Purpose and Methods

Active Vocabulary

purpose/ aim/ objective/ goal/ target

a method/ a technique/ a procedure

detection /identification/ observation

measurement/calculation/ computation/ approximation

consideration/ generalization/ deduction/ assumption

modelling/ simulation

advantages/ merits/ strong points

disadvantages/ shortcomings/ limitations/ weak points

accurate/ precise

accuracy/ precision

reliable/ valid/ conventional/ effective/ useful/ valuable

results/ information/ data/method …

to make an experiment/ analysis

to reveal/ to find/  to provide evidence

to confirm/ to prove findings/ the data obtained …

to study/ to examine

to collect data

to refine the results

to create

to improve

to work out /to develop/ to design

to verify/ to check

to approve/ to disprove an assumption

to use/ to employ/ to apply results/ data …

to allow/ to permit/ to provide

to have much promise/ to be promising

to come into use

 

Tasks:

  1. A.   Answer the questions:
  2. What is the subject of your current research?
  3. What is the purpose of your research?
  4. What methods do you employ? Why?
  5. What are the advantages of the method(s) you use over other methods and techniques?
  6. Is this method only now coming into use? Is it new?
  7. What does the method consist in? What operations does it include?
  8. Do you find the method reliable/ precise? Why?
  9. How long has your current research been under way?
  10. How much time will it take you to complete your research successfully?

 

  1. B.   Complete the sentences below. Speak about the purpose of your current research and the methods used.
  2. Currently I am … .
  3. I am making a set of experiments/ analyses in order to … .
  4. The experiment/ analysis is performed with a view to … .
  5. The purpose of my experiments/ analyses is to … .
  6. We undertake a set/a series of experiments hoping to … .
  7. In our current research we … the method of … .
  8. The method/ technique allows/ permits … to … .
  9. The method /technique makes it possible to … .
  10. This is, without any doubt, the most … and … method.
  11. The method proves to be … .

 

  1. C.   Work in pairs.

Ask for and give information about your current research, namely its purpose and the methods you employ.

 

Unit 5. Current Research: Results and Conclusion

Active Vocabulary:

to collect/ to get/ to receive/ to obtain

data/ results/ findings/ observations/evidence

comprehensive/extensive/ detailed/ remarkable/encouraging/convincing

preliminary

sufficient/insufficient/ superficial

to treat the problem

to succeed in/ to make progress in/ to be a success

to fail in

to be similar to/ to be the same as

to be consistent with/ to coincide

to agree with/ to fit the assumption

to support/ to provide support/ in support of

to reach an understanding/ to come to an understanding

to conclude/ to come to/ to bring to/ to make a conclusion

 

Tasks:

  1. A.   Answer the questions:
  2. Have you already obtained any research results?
  3. What are the main results of your current research?
  4. Has your research been a success?
  5. Have you succeeded in receiving extensive data?
  6. Do your research data agree with the theory you follow?
  7. Do your results coincide with those obtained by other researchers?
  8. Are the results you have obtained of purely theoretical or practical interest?
  9. Do your research results appear to be of both theoretical and practical importance?
  10. Are the data/observations you have obtained sufficient to formulate your final conclusions?
  11.  What part of your research remains still unfinished?
  12.  Do the data/ results/ observations/ findings allow you to come to any definite conclusion(s)?
  13.  What conclusion(s) have you come to?
  14.  How long will it take you to complete your research?

 

  1. B.   Complete the sentences below. Speak about the results and conclusions of your research.
  2. The research has been under way for a year and I’ve got  … .
  3. At present a lot of work is being done to … .
    1. The results we have … so far cannot be used to … .
    2. Unfortunately, we have failed to … but succeeded in … .
    3. The findings prove to … .
    4. The evidence appears to … .
    5. As a result of numerous experiments performed we have obtained sufficient data to … .
    6. Most of our research findings are consistent with … .
    7. We have come to the conclusion that … .

 

  1. C.   Work in pairs.

Ask for and give information about your research results and conclusions.

 

Unit 6. Conference Participation

Active Vocabulary

a meeting/a session

a plenary meeting/the opening ceremony

a speaker

a chairman/a chairwoman/a chairperson

to call upon someone/to give the floor to someone

to set up/to fix the time limit

to break the time limit

to call attention to the time limit

to stimulate discussions

to ask somebody a question

to call for questions

to submit abstracts/ to present papers/ to give a poster presentation

to take part in/ to participate in/ to attend a conference

to take the floor

to keep/ to stick to the point

to digress from the subject

to have a good/ poor knowledge/ command of English

to find the knowledge of English adequate/ inadequate to …

to find English hard to follow

to fail to understand reports/ questions in English

 

Tasks:

  1. A.   Answer the questions:

1.  Have you ever participated in international conferences/ symposia/ congresses?

  1. What was the last conference you took part in?

3. Where was the conference held?

4. What problems were considered and discussed?

5. How many participants attended the conference/session/ workshop?

6. Which paper or presentation attracted special attention and was of particular interest for you?

7. What problem did it deal with?

8. What was your presentation about?

9. What was your time limit?

10. Have you ever present a paper at the conference in English?

11. Do you find your English sufficient/ adequate to participate in international conferences?

12. Do you think you have a good/poor knowledge of English?

13. Why is it necessary/ important for a scientist to know foreign   languages nowadays?

 

  1. B.   Complete the sentences below. Speak about your experience of conference participation.
  2. Every year conferences … in our university.
  3. This year I … in the conference which was held …
  4. I had to … the abstract covering the problem of …
  5. The time limit was … and I had ten minutes to …
  6. My report … the problem which … much attention.
  7. Of … interest were the reports presented by X and Y.
  8.  I … in understanding English, because I find my English …

 

C. Work in pairs.

Ask for and give information about your participation in a conference/symposium/congress. Share your opinions about the organization of the conference, its agenda, the chairman’s speech and the papers presented.

 

Unit 7. How to Chair a Conference

Active Vocabulary

to chair the session                                     

to give a special welcome to  

to attend the meeting                          

to consider the range of subjects                

to schedule something for …                     

to schedule something for …                                      

to reschedule                                             

to promote something

to cancel something                                    

to hold concurrently                                    

a working group session

a poster session

a  panel discussion

an agenda

an alternation to the agenda

a stimulating discussion

 

 

Tasks:

A. Read and practise some useful speech patterns:

Introducing a speaker

I have the great pleasure to introduce …

Our first guest will speak on …

And now I have the pleasure of introducing our first speaker …

I now give the floor to …

Our next speaker is … who will speak about/on …

Now I’d like to call upon … who is going to speak about/on …

And now I ask … to make his contribution on …

Now I’m giving the floor to … who will speak about/on …

 

Stimulating a discussion

Please feel free to ask questions and make comments.

Any questions or comments?

Are there any questions on Mr. X’s paper?

Does anyone want to ask questions to …?

Any other questions?

Do you have questions to ask?

Who would like to comment on Mr. X’s paper?

Does anyone else want to ask a question or make a comment?

Are there any further comments on the paper?

There are no more questions … Thank you.

 

Ending a meeting

I’d like to thank you all for a stimulating discussion.

Well, I think that covers everything.

All the topics seem to have been exhausted.

I think it’s time we closed the discussion.

Our time is up. The discussion is closed.

I declare the session closed.

I think we have done a good job. Thank you all.

 

Unit 8.  Presenting a Paper

Active Vocabulary

to present/ read a paper                

to remind of …     

to give an explanation of

to begin/finish with …    

to discuss in detail              

to emphasize                     

to note the difference           

to point out

to draw a conclusion

in contrast with

 

Tasks:

A. Before you make your oral presentation read the following recommendations:

Thinking about your presentation

  1. State your purpose, be specific.
  2. Identify the central idea of your presentation.
  3. List the main points of your presentation.
  4. Think of supporting material for each main point.
  5. Decide what kinds of visual aids you will use.

 

Preparing for your presentation

  1. Write an outline of your presentation. You might want to add transition words between the sections.
  2. Write the introduction.
  3. Write the conclusion.
  4. Print the introduction, outline, and conclusion in big print.
  5. Prepare your visuals.

 

Practising your presentation

  1. Stand up and give your presentation (a mirror can be very helpful). Pretend that you have an audience and look at it.
  2. Do it again and time yourself. Make any adjustments necessary for time.
  3. Ask a friend to listen and critique it.
    1. Practise it several more times until you are comfortable and not reading it.

 

Giving the presentation

  1. Have everything ready. Don’t spend time collecting possessions and getting it in order when it’s time for you to speak.
  2. Walk to the front of the room confidently, put your notes on the lectern, and start.
  3. Don’t apologize for anything.
    1. Make eye contact with your audience. Don’t just look at your notes or at the wall.
    2. Do not read! It’s really boring.
    3. Be enthusiastic about your topic.
    4. When you finish, collect your possessions quickly, thank the audience and sit down.

 

 

B. Answer the questions:

  1. What is the topic of the paper you are going to present?
  2. Why are you interested in this particular topic?
  3. Do you always prepare for presentations?
  4. What recommendations for making oral presentations do you find most helpful?
  5. Which ones do you always follow?

 

C. Read and practise some useful paper speech patterns:

 

Introductory Paper Speech Patterns

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, I am greatly honoured to be invited to this conference.

In this paper I would like to talk about the concept of …

The object of this paper is to show …

To begin with, let us imagine that …

As many of you know …

First of all I would like to …

I am sure I don’t have to remind you that …

I am very pleased to have this opportunity to …

In my paper I want to highlight  …

In the introduction to my paper I would like to …

I want to begin my presentation with …

Let me begin with …

The first thing I want to talk about is …

The subject that I will discuss is …

 

 

Speech Patterns for the Body of the Paper

According  to this theory…

After this, I need/ it remains only to say that …

Again, I want to emphasize that …

It should be emphasized that …

It should be pointed out that …

Let me give you my explanation of …

Let me now turn to …

Let us consider what happens if …

Let us have a closer look at …

Let us imagine that …

Let us suppose that …

Now I come to …

On the contrary …

On the one hand …, on the other hand …

Primarily …

This is indeed the case when …

This in turn implies …

This is particularly true for …

 

Closing Paper Speech Patterns

The last part of my talk will be devoted to …

To all this must be added that …

Before I close I would like to emphasize the importance of …

Since I am running out of time …

As my time is running out …

Finally I want to say a few words about …

I end this paper with a description of …

I leave it to you to judge …

In closing, I want to mention very briefly …

In conclusion, let me say …

In conclusion, may I repeat …

Summing up, I would like to …

Formulas of Scientific Communication

Establishing contacts

I’m glad you’ve asked me that question.

 

Agreeing

Yes, indeed.

I think you are entirely right.

I agree that…

That’s just what I think.

 

Disagreeing

I am arguing against…

I would object just a little…

I object to…

I wish I could agree with you but…

 

Expressing surprise

It is rather surprising…

It is unbelievable…

I am puzzled by…

I wonder about…

I find it hard to believe that…

 

Expressing uncertainty

It seems unlikely that…

I have doubts about…

I am not at all sure about…

I am not certain…

I am doubtful whether…

I have been rather puzzled by…

I doubt it.

 

Making contribution

In connection with … I would like to add …

Let me add that…

In addition, I would like to mention…

I would add that…

 

Calling attention

I want to point out that…

I would like to note…

I would like to stress the importance of…

It is worth pointing out that…

I would like to draw/ call your attention to…

 

Making assessment

The paper raises an important question …

This method is particularly important because…

The paper demonstrates how important it is to…

These results/ data are of particular interest.

 

Starting a conversation

As far as I know…

What I have in mind is that…

 

Making remarks

I’d like to make a comment on …

I would like to comment on…

I have a point to make.

 

Provoking arguments

Would you agree with…?

There seems to be some contradiction between your points of view. Does that mean you think…?

 

Asking for details/classification

Could you be more specific about…?

I am not clear about…

Could you give us some more facts to back that up, please?

 

Introducing opinions/attitudes

Well, I’d like to say that…

What I think is…

 

Delaying an answer

Well, let me see…

Well, now…

That’s a good question…

Oh, let me think for a moment…

It is rather difficult to answer this question …

It’s difficult to give you an exact answer, but…

I’m not too sure, but…

I’ve no idea, I’m afraid.

 

Avoiding answering

I have no particular theory for this fact, but …

I’m terribly sorry, I really don’t know.

Actually, I don’t know …

I’d rather not answer that, if you don’t mind.                       

 

COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE:

Act out the situations:

  1. Two post-graduate students are participating in an international conference. There they get acquainted and talk about the problems of their research, discuss the progress in their field of science and its influence on life today.
  2. Two post-graduate students are sharing information about new approaches and developments in their research areas. They talk about the contributions made by other scientists and discuss publications available on their research problems.
  3. Two young researchers are discussing their current research, expressing particular interest in the objectives of the research, and describing the methods they use.
  4. You have a poster presentation at the conference. Another participant is interested in your topic. Tell him about the main stages of your research, present the results obtained, and give a short explanation of the main findings.
  5. You are interested in your colleague’s research and his latest findings. Ask him/her about the difficulties he/she faced with in carrying out research (experiments, analyses), and about the progress he/she has made.
  6. Your fellow-student has never participated in a conference. He is eager to know about your experiences. Tell him what the most difficult thing for you was and what you really enjoyed.
  7. You are a chairperson opening a Students’ Annual Conference. To do it you are given five minutes.
  8. You submitted a paper to the organizing committee of an international conference and it was accepted. Today you are given the floor to present your research data. The time limit is ten minutes. Give your presentation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MODULE 3. Writing Research Papers

Writing a research paper takes a lot of time and effort. It demands a thorough knowledge not only of the subject you are writing about, but also of the strategies for generating, verifying, substantiating and proving ideas. It is necessary to follow the structure, style, format and layout of the paper. The following guidelines will help you by providing a step-by-step explanation of the research-writing process.

 

Unit 1. Gathering Data and Writing Summary Notes

When reading papers written by other authors, on the subject that is of interest to you, you must write summary notes.

A summary condenses into a brief note the key ideas of a source. It is a brief description of the material without a lot of concern for style or expression.  Summary notes are very helpful when you deal with references to source materials, statistical data and all kinds of facts on your specific topic.

A precis is a polished summary that in a few words expresses the key ideas on an entire paragraph, section or chapter. Writing a precis proves to be very helpful when you review an article, a book, or produce an abstract.  To produce a précis condense the original piece of writing, reducing a paragraph into a sentence, an article into a brief paragraph, a book into a page. Preserve the tone and the mood of the original,  do not take the material out of  context. Always locate the source of your material to review a piece of writing or to write a plot summary.

 

TASK:  Do you ever write summary notes? If not, are you going to start? Write a precis of a paper using the instructions given above.

 

 

 

Unit 2. Organizing Ideas

Most papers in various scientific disciplines have a similar organization pattern – Introduction, Body and Conclusion (especially papers on theoretical issues). Research papers based on experiments would include Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion/Conclusion.

When you write a research paper observe the following instructions:

Introduction: identify the subject of your research and narrow it to a specific topic, provide background information, state the problem and the hypothesis of research, provide theoretical basics of the study, formulate the thesis statement/ sentence.

Method: describe the subject/participants of your study, the apparatus and equipment used, the procedure followed.

Results: report on your findings, support them with statistical data, diagrams, graphs, tables and figures, etc., note whether your findings are consistent with the advanced hypothesis.

Discussion/Conclusion: evaluate and interpret the results obtained, make inferences from the results, discuss the implications of your findings. You can end your paper with some reflections about the topic discussed, some suggestions for further research.

TASK:  When you start writing a paper, will you follow the instructions given above? Will you eliminate or add new elements? Have you consulted your thesis supervisor on this issue? If not, are you going to discuss it with him/ her?

 

Unit 3. Writing the Paper:

Structure, Linguistics and Style

         A research paper has physical and structural characteristics. The physical characteristics consist of the title, the introduction, the main body parts and the conclusion, which you write in indented paragraphs.

THE TITLE

         When you start reading a research paper, its title is perhaps the most important part, because the key words in the title help you make a decision whether the paper is of interest for you or not. Thus the title should not be very long and general, but rather specific, e.g. “The LUMINA element for the matrix displacement method”. To achieve this effect you can first name the general subject followed by a colon, and then:

  • add the phrase that renames the subject, e.g. “Matrix displacement method: recent developments”;
  • add the phrase that describes the type of study, e.g. “Matrix displacement method: experimental observations”;
  • add a sentence in a question form, e.g. “Matrix displacement method: What comes next?”.

The title should always be relevant to the problem studied, and fit the paper. It should provide code words which identify the main points of research.

 

Task:  look through the journals on the subject of your research and find the titles of the papers that fit the requirements discussed above. Write down several titles for your paper, discuss them with your fellow-students and choose the best one.

INTRODUCTION

When you write the introduction, you begin with a broad statement relating to the subject of research and narrow it down to specifics, namely the thesis statement/ sentence of the whole paper. It is usually a single declarative sentence, the assertion you make about the main points of your study. The thesis statement helps both the writer and the reader. For the writer, it provides a definite framework to follow in the rest of the paper. For the reader, it provides a guide for a clear understanding of what to expect from the rest of the paper. Express your thesis statement at the end of the introduction.

 

TASK:  Think over and write a thesis sentence for your paper. Show it to your fellow students. Let them figure out what the subject and the reason for your research are.

BODY

The body of the paper should provide evidence in support of the thesis sentence, each paragraph explaining one and only one aspect of the thesis. Begin each paragraph with a statement of the key idea in one sentence, which is called the topic sentence, and explain or support it with details and evidence. There are several ways of supporting the key idea and developing paragraphs – by describing, classifying, providing statistical data and scientific evidence, analyzing causes and effects, comparing and contrasting, etc.  The strategies are determined by the point you want to make and the kind of information you have to work with.

 

CONCLUSION

The conclusion can be a summary of the introduction and the development paragraphs of the body parts, which is usually done from specific to general – this study to larger implications. But more importantly it should express your judgment on the research performed and the results obtained, explain the findings and/or make suggestions for further investigation.

* * *

Structurally, a paper should have unity and coherence. Unity gives the writing single vision, and coherence connects the parts. Your paper has unity when it talks about one topic, step by step exploring it in depth. Your paper is coherent if all its parts fit together, talk about the same topic, are connected logically and flow smoothly from one to the other. To obtain this effect use cohesive devices.

Cohesive devices help readers follow a writer’s train of thought by connecting key words and phrases thought a paper. Among such devices are: pronoun references, same-word repetition, synonym repetition, sentence-structure repetition, collocations.

Transition words serve as a bridge, connecting one paragraph with another. Transitions help readers anticipate how the next paragraph or sentence will affect the meaning of what they have just read:

also, besides, furthermore, in addition – to add more thought;

first, next, finally, later, afterwards, in front, beyond, etc. – to arrange ideas in order, time or space;

but, still, yet, however, on the other hand, nevertheless – to connect two contrasting ideas;

for example, in other words – to add an illustration or explanation;

in short, in brief, to sum up – to summarize several ideas.

* * *

Nowadays in scientific publications there is a strong tendency to use definite verb tenses in certain types of papers. When you write a paper in natural sciences, use past tense or present tense to cite an author’s work and/or show what has been accomplished: (e.g., “Landau created” or “the experiment of Lakes and Paul has proven…”). Use present tense when you discuss the results or when you mention established knowledge (e.g., “water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade”). Write your paper with a third-person voice (e.g.“ It is well known”) that avoids “I believe” or “It is my opinion.” 

 

Task:  read Sample 1 “Introduction” and mark sentences that describe the subject, background, problem and thesis statement.

Sample 1

Syntheses and Antimalarial Activities of

N-Substituted 11-Azaartemisinins

Daniel S. Torok and Herman Ziffer

National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Bl-31, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0510

Steven R. Meshnick and Xing-Qing Pan

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor,

Michigan 48109-2029

 Arba Ager

University of Miami School of Medicine, Center for Tropical Parasitic Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 12500 S. W. 152nd Street, Miami, Florida 33177

 

INTRODUCTION

Malaria continues to be the most prevalent and deadly parasitic disease in the world, infecting some 300 million people and causing ca. 3 million deaths each year. Clinical studies in Thailand,2a-c China,2d Somalia,2e and Sudan2f of artemisinin derivatives in combination with older antimalarial drugs have dem­onstrated substantial improvements over conventional treatments including more rapidly decreasing para-sitemia and fever, as well as fewer deaths. Patients infected with drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum recovered completely. Although several studies have shown that artemisinin derivatives can be administered by means of transdermal patches and suppositories, in the above studies they were adminis­tered orally despite their poor bioavailability. Appar­ently alternative modes of administration in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia posed problems that could not be circumvented.

The majority of artemisinin derivatives prepared to date have been either ester, ether, carbonate, or ure-thane derivatives of the hydroxyl group of dihydro-artemisinin, 1a.3 The greater stability of lactams to acidic conditions, such as those present in the stomach, should reduce the destruction of the drug that occurs there and might, therefore, lead to an increase in the drag's bioavailability. Moreover, incorporating a lipo-philic or hydrophilic substituent on the lactam nitrogen provides a means to control the drug's solubility proper­ties. Furthermore, preliminary data by Avery et al.4a on a totally synthetic azaartemisinin analog, N-benzyl-11-aza-9-desmethylartemisinin, indicated that it was 50% more potent than artemisinin, 2. We report here a short synthetic route for the conversion of 2 into a series of novel N- substituted 11- azaartemisinin derivatives as well as in vitro and in vivo test data for these compounds.

 

TASK: Read the following recommendation which will help you avoid certain mistakes while writing the introduction of your paper.

 

Avoid :

  • a purpose statement, such as “The purpose of this study is …”
  •  repetition of the title, which should appear on the first page of the text anyway
  • complex or difficult questions that may puzzle the reader
  • simple dictionary definitions
  •  humor, unless the subject deals with humor.

 

TASK: Read the list of phrases and choose the most appropriate ones to write an introduction of your paper.

 

List of phrases used to write an introduction

Historical background and the research problem:

  1. During the past decade there has been increasing research into … .
  2. In some theoretical studies … .
  3. … were able to provide a fully generalized, compact simultaneous solution to … .
  4. In particular, they employed … for … .
  5. … is an important and common problem.
  6. It has become a canonical problem in the study of …, providing a valuable test for simulation methods or theoretical models.
  7. In the previous paper … we used a specific model for … .
  8. The paper examines a method for … .
  9. Earlier descriptions of the … assumed that … .
  10.  However, detailed experimental studies of … indicate that … .
  11.  The most rigorous treatments available are restricted to the … .
  12.  Accordingly, we suggest that … .
  13.  A number of different techniques have been used in … to study ….
  14.  The paper continues in Section 2 with a discussion of …, Section 3 overviews …, Section 4 then proposes … and this matter is discussed in Section 5. Finally in Section 6 we discuss … .
  15.  Several techniques have been used to investigate … .

 

Literature review

  1. There is a wide body of literature which suggests that … .
  2. …effects have received much attention.
  3. There were the limited number of studies conducted on … .
  4. The listings of the programme may be found in … .
  5. Examples are given in … .
  6. Extensive field studies were undertaken by the scientists at … .

 

The need for your investigation:

  1. There is still lack of knowledge of … . Much further research is needed to understand … .
  2. … has received little attention in recent years.
  3. It is therefore important to establish the … .
  4. Studies on the … process have been and still are of great interest because of the …
  5. In spite of significant recent advancement in the fundamental understanding of … several important aspects of the … still remain controversial.
  6. … investigations have been proved very valuable in … but they do not give a complete picture of …, since they eliminate … .
  7. Most of the above investigations concentrated on the general effects of … and did not look carefully at the … .
  8. There is still no complete knowledge of … .
  9. There are still many gaps in our knowledge of the problems of … .
  10. We still know very little about the origin of … .

 

The purpose of research:

1. The objective of this study is … .

2. … is the primary purpose of the paper.

3. The aim of this paper is to investigate the … .

 

TASKS:

1. Let your fellow-students read the introduction you have written. What do they like/dislike about it?

2. Discuss with your fellow-students what techniques of writing research   papers are most typical for your field of science, and then read sample 2 “The Body of the Paper”.

 

 

 

Sample 2

EXPERIMENTAL SECTION

         Melting points were determined on a Reichert melting point apparatus and are uncorrected. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded at 300 and 75 MHz, respectively, on a Varian Gemini 300 spectrometer, using CDC13 as solvent. CIMS analyses were performed on a Finnigan 4600 mass spectrometer. IR spectra were obtained from neat films on a Perkin Elmer Model BIO-Rad FTS-45 spectrophotometer. Optical rotations were measured at 589 nm on a Perkin-Elmer 241 MC polarimeter. Thin layer chromatography was performed on EM silica gel 60 F254 plates. Radial dispersion chromatography (RDC) was performed on a chromatotron (Harrison Research, Palo Alto, CA) using 1 or 2 mm silica gel-coated plates. All reagents are commercially available and used as supplied with the exception of the amines which were distilled prior to use. Microanalyses were performed by Galbraith Laboratories (P.O. Box 51610, Knoxville, TN 37950-1610) and are within +0.4 % of the theoretical values. The compounds with satisfactory microanalyses are indicated in Table 3 by the letter A and those by high-resolution mass spectrometry by the letter B. In those cases where the molecular ion was too weak for high-resolution mass spectrometry, the molecular ion by CI-MS (NH3) was readily detected by low-resolution mass spectrom­etry and is indicated by the letter C. The identities and purities were established by mass spectroscopy and the absence of extraneous resonances in their 1H and 13C NMR spectra.

Table 3.  Physical and Chemical Data of Compounds 4-17a

 

compound

 

formula

 

anal.

MS

high res

 

low res

 

4

C15H23NO4

A

B

 

6

C16H27NO4

A

 

C

7

C18H23NO3

 

 

C

8

C19H31NO4

A

 

C

9

C19H31NO3

 

 

C

10

C16H25NO3

 

 

C

12

C18H27NO4

 

 

C

13

C22H29NO4

A

B

C

14

C21H28N2O4

 

 

C

15

C20H27NO4S

 

B

C

16

C20H27NO5

 

 

C

17

C17H25NO5

A

 

C

 

a A. indicates that the microanalysis for C, H, and N was within 0.4% of the theoretical value. B indicates that the high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis was satisfactory. C indicates that the low-resolution CIMS (NH3) was correct. ……..

TASKS:  

1. What are the main points covered in this section of the paper? Which techniques  used in this paper do you find helpful in writing the body of your paper?

2.  Read the list of phrases and choose the most appropriate ones to write   the body of your paper.

List of phrases to write the body of the paper

Methods and Techniques

  1. The experiments were performed at … .
  2. The experimental set up included … .
    1. Two array configurations were used.
    2. The measurements … were conducted using … .
    3. The main experimental configuration is presented in Figure 1.
    4. The simulation starts with … .
    5. The instrumentation and general arrangements were those described

      previously … .

  1. All the experiments were carried out using a …
  2. A standard … was used to … .
  3.  The velocity distribution in the … is obtained numerically using the finite element method.
  4.  The experimental … is fitted with an array of …, as shown schematically in Fig. … .
  5.  The equation governing the direct problem is obtained by … .
  6.  The direct problem is solved using the… method.
  7.  The following procedure is used to determine … .
  8.  Figure 3 summarizes the direct model and inverse approach.
  9.  At any given time … the inverse algorithm determines … .
  10.  … was verified by measuring the … at various axial locations.
  11.  The device was similar in concept to that described by …
  12.  The probe itself consisted of …
  13.  … was recorded by the computer for a set sampling rate and time.
  14.  The outside diameter of the tube is taken to be …
  15.  … was studied under steady state conditions.

Results

  1. The results of … numerical calculations are shown in … .
  2. The results obtained indicated that … .
  3. A schematic diagram of the system is shown in Fig. 1.
  4. Charts / tables/ figures show … .
  5. From the graph it can be seen that there is good agreement between experiment and theory for … .
  6. The data cover a wide range of … dimensions and operating conditions.
  7. As shown in Fig…, the discrepancy between the equation and the data is as much as  … .
  8. The present correlation is in good agreement with most data.
  9.  Prior to applying the inverse procedure to experimental results… .
  10.  Two observations can be made from these plots.
  11.  Fig. … shows a scatter plot of … .
  12.  Table … summarizes the results … .
  13.  Results of the … are presented in …
  14.  As expected, the … errors decreased with … more rapidly.
  15.  The fact that the … errors are larger than the … errors suggests one of two things: …
  16.  Similar observations can be made about the behavior of the mean errors.
  17.  In general, there is no significant qualitative difference between the … and … cases.
  18.  The data are plotted in logarithmic form, for ease of comparison with … paper
  19.  From Fig. … it is estimated that …
  20.  On the basis of these results it can be observed that …

* * *

To describe results use tentative verbs and modals:

It appears/seems/ is likely/ that …

These results suggest …

It is possible that …;

Use past tense.

 

TASKS:  

1. How long did it take you to write the body of the paper? What was the most difficult thing about it?

2.   Read the list of phrases and choose the most appropriate ones to finish your paper.

 

List of phrases to write the conclusion/discussion section

  1. This research has attempted to … .
  2. The original assumption was that … .
  3. The findings of … suggest that … is appropriate to … .
  4. Analogous results hold for … .
  5. One reason could be that … .
  6. These results could be explained by assuming that … .
  7. It is unlikely that … .
  8. These findings suggest/imply/provide evidence that … .
  9. Detailed understanding of … is still lacking … .
  10.  The method becomes even more efficient for the … case.
  11.  From a computational viewpoint … .
  12.  In this context these results are the same as those obtained from the … method.
  13. The methods described here have more general application … .
  14.  It was observed that … does not have a significant effect on the performance of the … equations.
  15.  The principal results and findings are as follows … .
  16.  Analyses of experimental data obtained during … demonstrate that the inverse procedure is capable of accurately predicting … over significant periods of time.
  17.  The results from … were compared with results from … .
  18.  The model will be useful in the analysis of … processes.
  19.  A significant advantage of this theory is that … .
  20.  It should be noted that the results recorded here are rather preliminary.
  21.  Finally, an important conclusion follows from … .
  22.  It is a logical consequence of the fact that … .
  23.  It would be interesting to … .
  24.  Much further research is needed in the area of … .  

 

TASK 1: Read the following recommendation which will help you avoid certain mistakes while writing the conclusion of your paper.

Avoid:

  • afterthoughts or additional ideas - now is the time to end the paper, not to begin a new thought
  • the use of "thus," "in conclusion," or "finally" at the beginning of the last paragraph. Readers can see plainly the end of the paper.
  • ending the paper without a sense of closure.
  • questions that raise new issues; however, rhetorical questions that restate the issues are acceptable.

 TASK 2: Read samples 3-5 and notice how to write the “Discussion of Results”, “Conclusion” and “Acknowledgements’ parts of a research paper.

 

Sample 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

          A complex mixture of products results from the reaction of a methanolic solution of ammonia with artemisinin as determined by TLC. A 1H NMR spec­trum of the mixture suggested the presence of a methyl ketone, but no signal characteristic of an aldehydic proton was observed. Apparently the amide nitrogen or hydroperoxide moieties form adducts with the alde­hyde (e.g. 3c,d, respectively, in Scheme 1).

         Prolonged reaction of 2 and ammonia produces a more complex mixture containing polar products. Avery et al.4 syn­thesized several artemisinin derivatives by treating crude mixtures of hydroperoxides with acid. They employed Amberlyst 15 in their early work4b but in later publications reported superior yields with a mixture of aqueous sulfuric acid/silica gel   (H 2SO4 /SiO2).4c

Treatment of the crude reaction mixture from 2 and ammonia with H2SO4 / SiO2, as described by Avery et al.,4c produced a mixture of two products separable by column chromatography.5 The major product, 11-aza­artemisinin (4), was obtained in 45% yield and a more polar product, 10-azadesoxyartemisinin (5), in 9% yield. The structural assignments of 4 and 5 were based on 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometric data. Ad­ditional data supporting the assigned structures were obtained employing 15NH3 in the synthesis. The 13C NMR spectra of both 15N-containing products showed that in 4 the 15N was attached to C-12 (1J = 11.9 Hz) and C-10 (1J — 10.3 Hz) and showed a long-range coupling with C-9 (3J = 5.9 Hz). In 5 the 15N was coupled to C-11 (10.4 Hz) and C-9 (11.7 Hz) and exhibited a long-range coupling to C-8 (5.9 Hz). When Amberlyst 15 was substituted for H2SCO4 / SiO2, the yield of 4 increased to 65% and compound 5 was not observed.

        The conversion of artemisinin into a lactam led us to attempt to prepare N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins using alkylamines instead of ammonia. The reaction of a methanolic solution of allylamine with 2 produced a mixture of products which on treatment with dilute H2SO4/SiO2 yielded N-allyl-11-azaartemisinin, 6, in 45% yield along with N-allyl-10-azadesoxyartemisinin, 7, in 15% yield. Here again, use of Amberlyst 15 produced only 6 in high yield (84%). Since 7 is an expected metabolite of 6,3a a sample of 7 will facilitate biological studies with 6 by facilitating identification of the expected metabolite. When isobutylamine was utilized in an analogous manner, N-isobutyl-11-azaartemisinin, 8, and N-isobutyl-10-azadesoxyartemisinin, 9, were obtained. Use of methylamine in methanol N-methyl-11-azaartemisinin, 10, and N-methyl-10-azadesoxyartemisinin, 11.

       Reaction of 2 with aromatic and heteroaromatic amines was also examined. In order to obtain N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins, it proved essential to remove any unreacted amine present in the reaction mixture prior to treatment with acid. Failure to do so resulted in formation of N-substituted 10-azadesoxy-artemisinins. Volatile amines could be removed in vacuo, whereas the less volatile amines required extrac­tion of a methylene chloride solution of the crude reaction mixture with an aqueous citrate buffer (pH 4.5) Freshly distilled benzylamine and 2 with the modified workup yielded 13. Reaction of 2 with the heterocyclic amines, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)-thiophene, and 2-(aminomethyl)furan, followed by acid treatment yielded compounds 14-16.

         In exploring the use of 11-azaartemisinins as poten­tial intermediates for the preparation of antimalarial drugs, several reactions of 4 and 6 were investigated. Reaction of compound 4 with allyl bromide in the presence of silver oxide yielded a compound isomeric with 6. Its structure has been assigned as that of the O-allyl derivative 12 based on an analysis of its 1H and 13C NMR spectra, mass spectrometric data, and the known reactivity of amides with alkyl halides in the presence of base.6 Ozonolysis of the double bond in 6 yielded aldehyde 17.

         The above N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins were screened against a chloroquine-resistant strain (FCR3) of P. falciparum using a previously published8 modifica­tion of the method of Desjardins et al.9 The in vitro test results are summarized in Table 1 and demonstrate that replacement of the lactone moiety of 2 by a lactam, as in 4, yields an antimalarial drug with equivalent biological activity. The antimalarial activities of 8, 14, and 17 were 1 order of magnitude greater than that of artemisinin. These findings are consistent with those found by Avery et al.4a for their desmethylartemisinin derivatives, i.e., the antimalarial activities of lactams were as great as or greater than that of artemisinin. The presence of the endoperoxide for antimalarial activity was essential as with other artemisinin derivatives; 3a the oxides possess no significant anti-malarial activity. Although additional data are needed for a precise comparison of the relative in vitro activities of 17 and 2, we proceeded to prepare sufficient quanti­ties of 17 for in vivo testing. The in vivo test data are given in Table 2, which shows that 17 is at least 4 times more active than 2; i.e., it is approximately as active as β-arteether.

Neither recent clinical trials2a,b,d,e nor earlier clinical studies in China2c found artemisinin derivatives to be toxic. However, reports by Brewer et al.7 indicate that repeated administration of β-arteether, 1b, produces neurotoxic reactions in animals. In evaluating the potential of 17 as an antimalarial drug, data on its toxicity and bioavailability will be required. Additional azaartemisinin derivatives will be prepared as part of our planned structure – activity relationship (SAR) stud­ies.

 

Sample 4

CONCLUSIONS

Conversion of the lactone moiety of artemisinin into a lactam does not reduce its biological activity. Two N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins were found to exhibit enhanced in vitro antimalarial activity compared to 2. In vivo test data show that the lactam 17 is ca. 4 times more active than 2 and as potent as β-arteether. Replacement of the endoperoxide moiety in 11-aza­artemisinins by an oxide results in loss of antimalarial activity. The in vitro and in vivo activities of N-substituted azaartemisinins indicate that additional derivatives should be prepared and studied.

 

 

 

Sample 5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  1. We appreciate helpful discussions with … and … . This work was supported by the DOE under Grant No … .
  2. The author is grateful for Grant No … from … . I thank … and … for supportive comments, constructive suggestions and discussions.
  3. The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to … and … for their invaluable assistance in … , and for their penetrating criticism.

 

TASK:  Decide what techniques the authors use to finish their paper. What do you like/dislike about it?

 

Unit 4. Proofreading the paper

When typing the final manuscript, pay special attention to the format and layout of your paper (margins, spacing, arrangement of the text, etc.) and then proofread it. Read the paper several times to detect and correct all possible types of errors. A computer can be very helpful with checking the spelling, grammar, and style.

Double-check in-text citations to be certain that each one is correct and that each source is listed in the “Works Cited” or “References” page at the end of the paper.

 

TASK:  Proofread your paper and ask your fellow-students to do the same. What errors have you/ your fellow-students noticed? What techniques did you use?

 

 

Unit 5. Acknowledging Sources

         Having written your paper, you should list the reference materials used to give credit to those sources, and to enable readers to consult the sources for further information.  You can label this page “Works/ Sources Cited”, “Bibliography”, or References” depending on the character of items included – all works related to the subject or only those quoted; printed works as well as nonprint items, e.g., speeches. Although there is no universally agreed-upon system for acknowledging sources, first, write down name of author, next, title of publication, and then publication source, date, and page. Alphabetize the entries according to the author’s last name,  e.g.

[1 ] Alin, M. H., Ashton, M.,  Bjorkman, A. In vitro activity of artemisinin, its erivatives, and pyronari-dine against different strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Tmia R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1990, 84, 635-637.

[2] WHO.Tenth Programme Report of UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. WHO:  Geneva, 1991; p 30.

[3] ……………………………………………………………..

 

TASK: Look through the “References” pages in the journals on the subject of your research and write a reference page of your paper.

 

Unit 6. AN ABSTRACT

         An abstract is a brief description of the paper. It summarizes the basic        ideas developed in the paper. The abstract, as well as the title, helps readers decide to read or to skip the paper. Therefore, it should be accurate, concise, specific, objective and self-contained.

As a rule, the abstract is placed at the beginning of the paper, below the title. It is written last, when the final version of the paper is produced.

Providing an abstract in English will give your work a much higher profile outside your own country and make it much more accessible to international workers in the same field.

There are two types of abstracts: informational and descriptive.

 

Informational Abstracts, which usually follow a similar order to a scientific paper:

  1. Provide communicative contents of reports.
  2. Include purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations.
  3. Highlight essential points.
  4. Are short – from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the report (10% or less of the report).
  5. Allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report.

 

Descriptive Abstracts, which describe the publication itself (e.g. surveys, review articles, book chapters, etc.), rather than report particular findings:

  1. Tell what the report contains.
  2. Include purpose, methods, scope, but not results, conclusions, and recommendations.
  3. Are always very short – usually less than 100 words.
  4. Introduce subject to the readers, who must then read the report to learn/study results.

 

Whichever type of abstract you write, follow the suggestions given below:

Do not repeat the information given in the title.

Do not include in the abstract any facts or ideas that are not in the text; eliminate unnecessary background information.

Decide the degree of detail you include (especially for informational abstracts).

Use direct, straightforward English; reduce wordy phrases; avoid jargon.

Use the past tense when describing what was done.

Finally, revise the opening statement to emphasize the new information contained in the paper.

 

TASK 1:   Read the list of phrases and choose the most appropriate ones to write the abstract of your paper.

List of phrases to write an abstract

  1. A quantitative model is presented … .
  2. It is shown that … effects are … .
  3. The present model shows that … .
  4. An upper bound of …between …  and … is established for … .
  5. By examining inherent structures for … it becomes clear that … .
  6. … are shown to have higher/lower indices than … to exceed conventional bounds.
  7. … were observed and studied under … conditions.

 

TASK 2: Read sample 7 and notice how to write an abstract.

Sample 7

ABSTRACT

Syntheses and Antimalarial Activities of

N-Substituted 11-Azaartemisinins

Daniel S. Torok and Herman Ziffer*

National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Bl-31, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0510

Steven R. Meshnick and Xing-Qing Pan

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029

Arba Ager

University of Miami School of Medicine, Center for Tropical Parasitic Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 12500 S. W. 152nd Street, Miami, Florida 33177

 

         A two-step reaction sequence between artemisinin and methanolic ammonia followed by treatment with Amberlyst 15 yielded 11-azaartemisinin in 65% yield. Substituting a variety of primary alkyl- and heteroaromatic amines for ammonia in the reaction sequence yields N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins in similar or greater yield. When Amberlyst 15 is replaced by a mixture of sulfuric acid/silica gel, both 11-azaartemisinin and the expected metabolite, 10-azadesoxyartemisinin, are formed in 45% and 15% yields, respectively. In vitro and in vivo test data for a number of novel N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins, against drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, show they possess antimalarial activities equal to or greater than that of artemisinin. The most active derivative, N-(2'-acetaldehydo)-11-azaartemisinin, 17, was 26 times more active in vitro and 4 times more active in vivo than artemisinin.

 

TASK: Read the paper you have written. Choose the appropriate strategies, words and phrases given above to write an abstract of your paper. Was it easy to do? Explain why or why not?

 

COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE:

Discuss the topic for a new paper with your thesis advisor. Follow recommendations you have learnt in Unit 3. Write a paper and an abstract to it.

 

 

 

module 4. Writing Letter

Unit 1. Letter Layout

There are some important parts in a typical standard letter: the sender’s address, date, the recipient’s address, salutation, the subject (optional), the body of the letter, complimentary close, signature, the name and the title of the sender, enclosure (optional).

The Heading or the Letterhead (the return address/the sender’s address)  is usually placed in the top right-hand corner of the page.  It bears all the necessary information about the sender: the name and address of the institution, organization’s identity, position, title and address of the sender, the telephone, telex, fax numbers, e-mail or any other details that may be required, such as reference numbers, codes, etc.

To avoid difficulties in writing Russian names and surnames the following information may be of use:

ё  - io, yo, ie: Semionov, Semyonov, Semienov;

ж - zh: Zhukov;

з - z, s: Kuznetsov, Vosnesenskiy;

й - ei, iy: Aliseichik, Bykovskiy;

х - kh, h: Malakhov; Astahov;

ц - ts: Tsvetkov;

ч - ch: Chugunov;

ш - sh: Timoshenko;

щ - sch: Paschenko;

ы - y: Bykov;

ь  - ': Belen’kiy;

ю - yu, iu: Yurkov, Mavliukov;

я – ja, ya: Slepian, Yakovlev.

The Date should be placed below the sender’s address usually one or two spaces lower. The date may be written as month-day-year (US style) 11/06/2010 or day-month-year (UK style) 06.11.2010 and the year written with all four digits. A comma should be put between the day of the month, and the year to separate the numerals and prevent confusion November 6th, 2010.

The Inside Address (the recipient’s address) is always on the left margin, two spaces below the date. It includes the recipient's name, job title, address and postal (zip) code or zone number.

The initials of the first name are placed in front of the surname.

The words street, road or avenue may be abbreviated: St., Rd., Ave., .

The postal (zip) code or zone number is a geographical abbreviation. Be sure to put it in all addresses in countries that use it. In the United States the zip code uses five numbers; some countries use numbers and letters.

The Salutation (the greeting) begins two spaces below the receiver’s address and is written with the margin on the left. In Great Britain the salutation is followed by a comma (Dear Sir,), in the USA – by a colon only in formal letters (Dear Sir:) and sometimes by a colon and dash (Gentlemen:-). The salutation is never followed by an exclamation mark or by a dash only.

The type of salutation depends on your relationship with the recipient, the purpose of the letter, the position that your correspondent holds. It normally begins with the word "Dear" and always includes the person's last name. A title, such as Prof. or Dr. is used only with the surname.

In writing letters the following salutations are used:

  1. formal salutations:
  • Dear Sir
  • Dear Madam /Dear Ms. (If the letter-writer is not sure whether the lady is married or unmarried)
  1.   less formal salutations:
  • Dear Mr. Smith
  • Dear Mrs. Smith (to married woman.)
  • Dear Miss Smith (to unmarried woman.)
  • Dear Dr. Smith
  • Dear Prof. Smith
  • Dear Colleagues

 

The Subject (optional) can help the recipient in dealing successfully with the aims of your letter. Subject line may be emphasized by underlining, using bold font, or all capital letters. It is usually placed one line below the greeting but alternatively can be located directly after the "inside address," before the "greeting."

The Body of the Letter should begin two spaces below the salutation. The body of a letter is the main part because it contains the message for the recipient and should fulfill some requirements. The first paragraph of the letter should introduce the subject matter and either state or imply your purpose in writing. If there is more than one paragraph, each paragraph should focus on a separate aspect of the subject matter and there should be clear links between paragraphs. The final paragraph should leave the reader in no doubt about your attitude towards the subject of the letter. It should be positive and unambiguous. Regardless of format, skip a line between paragraphs or indent them. Short letters are usually double-spaced (two-lines); longer letters are single-spaced (one line) with double spaces between the paragraphs.

The Complimentary Close follows the body of the letter, about two or three spaces below it. Only the first word should be capitalized and a comma is placed at the end.

The traditional rule of etiquette in Britain is that a formal letter starting "Dear Sir or Madam" must end ‘Yours faithfully/ Faithfully yours”, while a letter starting "Dear Mr. Brown " must end “Yours truly/Yours sincerely /Truly yours/ Sincerely yours”. It is customary for colleagues, especially among scientists, to write “Yours sincerely” rather than “Yours truly or Yours faithfully”.

The complimentary close of a letter may begin as follows:

I look forward to hearing from you.

I look forward to hearing from you in the nearest future.

We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.

Thank you for your time/ effort/ help/ consideration.

Please, contact me if you require further details.

I trust that you will give this matter your urgent attention.

The Signature is written directly beneath the complimentary close. It is indented a little to the right. You should sign your first and last names. The first name can be written in full or with an initial. The signature line may include a second line for a title, if appropriate.

The Enclosure. If you include other material in the letter, put “Enclosure”,” 'Enc.”, or “Encs”.

 

 


Layout of a formal letter

The Letterhead (The Sender’s address)

the name of the institution/organization

the name, position, title
and the address of the sender
Phone/Fax number
E-mail (optional)

 

 

 

 

(2 blank lines after letterhead)
The Date                                  

 

(4blank lines)
The Inside address (The Recipient's address)           
The recipient's name, title                                                                          
Address
City, Zip
Country

(2 blank lines)
The Salutation


(1 blank line if there is a subject; 2 blank lines if there is no subject)

The Subject Line (optional):


(1 blank line)
The Body of the letter
Body Paragraph 1: Explain who you are and why you are writing this letter……………………………….

(1blank line)
Body Paragraph 2: Use facts, details and experiences to support your opinion or request……………

(1 blank line)
Body Paragraph 3: Tell the recipient what you want him to do or what you will do for him................................................

(1 blank line)
Short sentence: End your letter by saying something courteous to your recipient.
(2 blank lines)

The Complimentary close

The Signature
(3/4 blank lines)           ---> Your handwritten signature

 

 

The Name and the title of the Sender

 (2 blank lines)

The Enclosure

Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics

Dr. George T. Schmidt, Editor

MS 57

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

555 Technology Square

Cambridge, MA 02139-3563

(phone) 617-258-3841

(fax) 617-258-2333

(e-mail) m.a.lugaro@uu.nl

 

 

7 May,2008

 

 

Prof. V.P. Ivanov

Department of Physics, Southern Federal University

5 Zorge St.,

Rostov-on-Don, 344090

Russia

 

Dear Prof. Smith,

 

 

 

 

 

 

International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics

 

 

We are pleased to invite you to participate in the International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics to be held August 3-7, 2008, San Francisco, California, USA

 

This high-level International Conference offers a forum for the professional exchange of knowledge and skills related to this topic.

 

In particular, we would like to invite you to register for the conference by sending your application form and an abstract of your request via email by 30 June, 2008.

 

Looking forward to seeing you in San Francisco.

 

 

Yours sincerely,

 

 

(sign here)

 

 

Dr. David F. Johnson

 

Enc.: Application Form

 

 

Sample of an envelope

STAMP

 

writer’s full name

writer’s street address

writer’s city/sate/zip code

writer’s country

 

(title) recipient’s full name

recipient’s street address

recipient’s city/sate/zip code

recipient’s country


Prof. Manfred R.G. Wuttig

Dept. of Materials and Nuclear

Engineering

University of Maryland

College Park, Md. 20742-2111 USA

 

Robert S. Canster

36 North St.

London, S.W. 10 2DB

UK


TASKS:

  1. Write the following dates which are placed below the sender’s address:

the second of June, nineteen ninety-eight

the nineteenth of September, two thousand and two

the twenty-fifty of October, nineteen eighty-one

the third of January, two thousand and three

  1. Correct the errors in the following dates:

23, February, 2008                              November, 2, 2009

20th of July, 2000                               August 12 2004

10.02.1998                                          1976, January 12

  1. Complete the following sentences by indicating the dates:

      I have received your letter of …

Further information will be sent to you on …

In your letter of …

I will attend the conference in Moscow on …

The conference will last from … to ….

Professor Jones is arriving in Rostov on …

  1. Supply the letter below with your address, the date, some suitable complimentary close and your signature:

  Dear Sir,

I would be grateful if you could forward me a copy of your reprint entitled “Synaptic Transmitter,” which appeared in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 2, № 3, 2002, pp. 290-300.

 

COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE:

TaskRead the letter below. Make all the necessary changes to correct its layout:

Feb. 21, 2007

Assoc. Prof. Smirnov

Department of Physics                                                            

Southern Federal University

5 Zorge St.

344090 Rostov-on-Don

Russia

Dear Dr. Johnson

I wish to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of April 6 and to thank you for sending me the reprints.

I am now completing my experimental investigation and as soon as I work over my results I will prepare another contribution and send it to you for publication.

 Looking forward to further cooperation.

Yours sincerely

V. Smirnov   (signature)

 

Unit 2. Letters of Invitation

Task: Read the samples of invitation letters and highlight the phrases, commonly used in such letters:

Letter 1

Dear Colleague,

On behalf of the Organizing Committee may I invite you to be the Closing Keynote Speaker at the upcoming 2010 NEERI Conference. The theme of this conference is "Global Warming - a Major Environmental Problem”. It will be held at the Oceanfront Conference Center, San Antonio, from December 3 to 5, 2008.

For your information, Susan Mcleen will be the opening Keynote Speaker. The provisional title of her presentation is "Factors Contributing to Global Warming". We will forward a complete draft speaker program to you in a couple of weeks to give you an idea of the specific subjects that will be covered by the other speakers.

We expect attendance this year to be the highest ever; in the area of 2,000 delegates and 150 speakers. This includes a large contingent from our new European Chapter that is based in Geneva.

In closing, we would be pleased and honored if you would consent to be our closing speaker at the 2010 NEERI Conference.

I will call you in a week or so to follow up on this.

Sincerely yours,

(Signature)

Name, Conference Chair

Name, Local Committee Chair

 

Letter 2

Dear Dr. Angela Doe,

We are pleased to invite you to participate in the International Conference "New Information and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives" to be held October 24-30, 2011 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This high-level International Conference offers a forum for the professional exchange of knowledge and skills related to this topic. Over 2000 people are expected to be in attendance from over 50 countries. They will have the opportunity to learn from 1300 speakers via over 450 presentations including workshops, panels, and paper sessions.

The contributions of international attendees such as Dr. Doe enrich the program through enhancing the diversity of perspectives and content represented.

The working languages of the Conference are English and French.
We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.

If you have any questions or concerns, or if I may be of assistance in any way, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Sincerely yours,

(Signature)

Name

Program Committee Chairman

 

Letter 3

Dear …,

We would like to invite you to attend the workshop on

"The Origin of the Elements Heavier than Fe"

in honor of the 70th birthday of Roberto Gallino

25th - 27th September 2008

in Torino, Italy

The aim of the workshop is to review the progress made on our knowledge of the origin of elements heavier than Fe in the past 50 years, and to indicate future research directions. At the same time, we will celebrate the 70th birthday of Roberto Gallino and acknowledge his contribution to the field of nuclear astrophysics.

The workshop will be held in the Torino's hills at the new Planetarium of Torino - Museum of Astronomy and Space.

In particular, we would like to invite you to register for the conference by sending via email to m.a.lugaro@uu.nl by 30 June, 2008:

- your name and affiliation,

- if you wish to give an oral presentation or a poster, and

- a title and an abstract for your presentation.

There will not be proceedings, but contributions will be available on the web after the workshop.

Accommodations options and some travel information can be found below and will be posted soon on the workshop website: www.fisica.unipg.it/gallino70

We will send more information on this in the near future.

Looking forward to seeing you in Torino.

Sincerely yours,

(Signature)

Name

 

Letter 4

Dear …,

It is a pleasure for me to invite you to collaborate in my Laboratory of Computational Cell Biology at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) between 08 November, 2010and 23 December, 2010. As a guest researcher in my lab, it is my understanding you will focus on software development related to the modelling of metastasis in cancer. There will be no salary paid to you from TSRI. However, provided you have entered the country in WB (or B-1) status, we will reimburse you for your travel expenses and some incidental costs associated with your stay in La Jolla.

I am looking forward to hosting you.

Sincerely Yours,

(Signature)

Name

            How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

            Here are some more phrases used in letters of invitation:

It gives me a great pleasure to invite you to attend the Jubilee celebration of …

On behalf of the Organizing Committee may I invite you to participate in … .

The Institute of Physics officially invites you to deliver a series of lectures on …

It’s my great pleasure to invite you to present a poster at the 17th International Conference in Hamburg … .

I am writing to ask whether you would be willing to present a talk at the conference…

 

TaskS:

  1. Write a letter on behalf of the Organizing Committee inviting Prof. … to attend the 3rd International Congress on … to be held in Rostov … July 4-9 of the next year.
  2. Write a letter inviting … to cooperate with your laboratory in carrying out joint research on …
  3. Write a letter inviting … participate in the workshop on…

 

2.1. Letters of Acceptance

Task: Now read the samples of a favourable reply to an invitation letter and note phrases that express acceptance of invitations.

 

Letter 1

Dear Prof. ...,

Thank you for your invitation to be the Keynote speaker at the Renewable Energy Conference which will be held in Tokyo on 4 December, 2008.

I feel honoured and privileged to have been chosen as the Keynote speaker and I am pleased to inform you that I accept your invitation with great pleasure.
Sincerely yours,

Dr. Name

 

 

 

Letter 2

Dear Dr. …,

It is a pleasure to receive your letter dated March 17 from which I am happy to learn that you have established a new journal. I suppose it will be of great importance and value in developing branches of science.

It is very kind of you to invite me to cooperate with your journal and submit my papers for publication. I shall be very glad to comply with your request and send articles for your consideration. I have also asked some other researchers in this country to contribute papers to your journal, and I trust you will hear from them soon. They are interested in your journal and wish it much success. I would also like to add my personal best wishes.

I look forward to hearing from you again.

Sincerely yours,

Name

Letter 3

Dear Dr. …,

I am pleased to submit herewith my letter of interest to participate in the work of the 3rd International Congress on … to be held in … July 3-9, 2010. From the list of topics enclosed in your letter I could present a paper under the title “…”.

Thank you for giving us the opportunity to participate.

Sincerely yours,

Name

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some more examples how to accept an invitation:

I am delighted to accept the invitation of the American Physical Society to participate in the conference on space research.

I am pleased to accept the invitation to present my paper at the Congress on Hot Plasma and would like to contribute to the session on plasma instabilities.

Thank you very much for your kind invitation to the symposium on Optic Fibers.

I accept your invitation with great pleasure.

I am pleased to receive your invitation to … .

I appreciate very much your invitation to … .

 

TaskS:

1.  Write a letter in which you:

a)  thank the Organizing Committee for inviting you to participate in the conference;

b)    give the title of your poster presentation;

c)     ask about the program and the deadline for submitting abstracts.

2. Write a letter in which you:

a)     acknowledge the receipt of an invitation to submit your paper for publication in the Journal of…;

b)    express gratitude for the opportunity to publish the paper

c)     provide the title of your paper.

 

2.2. Letters of Refusals

Task: Read the samples of an unfavourable reply to an invitation letter and notice phrases that decline the invitation.

                                                                 Letter 1

Dear …,

I wish to express my deep gratitude to you for your invitation to participate in the XIX International Symposium on … to be held in … in early June 2011.

I very much regret to inform you, though, that I must decline your invitation because our experiment is in full swing and it cannot be delayed. I am sure you can understand this.

Sincerely yours,

Name             

 

Letter 2

Dear Prof. …,

I very much appreciate your kind invitation to participate in the VII Conference on … to be held in Oxford. Unfortunately, I will be unable to attend.

Had your invitation reached me a little earlier, I would have been able to attend the Conference and meet my colleagues. But I am now committed to giving a series of lectures to graduate students and cannot change these plans.

All best wishes for a successful Conference,

Sincerely yours,

Name

Letter 3

Dear Dr. …,

I was very glad to receive your letter of March 17, 2009, and to learn of your intension to establish a new journal. May I wish you good luck in your undertaking and great success for your journal. I am grateful to you for your kind invitation to cooperate with your journal, but I am very sorry to disappoint you. I am not able to submit any papers to your journal as my field of activity has nothing in common with the issues being raised in it.

However, as you requested, I have contacted some researchers who are involved in these problems. They have informed me of their willingness to publish their papers in your journal.

Attached you will find a list of names and addresses. If I can be of any further help to you, please contact me.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Enclosure: list of names and addresses

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some more examples of how to decline an invitation:

Thank you for your invitation to … but I regret that I am unable to accept it as … .

I am sorry to decline your kind invitation … .

It is with great regret that I have to decline your invitation to … .

I regret to inform you that I am not in a position to accept your invitation to … .

I regret that I will be unable to attend the conference because of my illness.

I regret to inform you that I will be unable to attend the conference due to  personal circumstances.

I regret that I cannot … .

I regret I must … .

I am sorry to inform you that … .

 

TaskS:

  1. Write a letter in which you:

a)                           express gratitude for the invitation to…; 

b)  express your regret for declining the invitation because of some circumstances.

  1. Write a letter in which you:

a)     inform the sender that you have received the letter of (the date);

b)    express gratitude for the invitation to … ;

c)     express regret as you have to decline the invitation because … .

 

COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE:

Task: You are a member of the Organizing Committee. Write a letter inviting Prof. Brown from Cambridge University to participate in the International Conference “Modern Problems of Microbiology and Biotechnology” to be held in Moscow on  October 1-8, 2010.

 

Unit 3. Letters of Request

A request usually consists of a request phrase, a reason for the request and an expression of gratitude.

Task: Read the samples and highlight the phrases and sentences that express a request.

Letter 1

Dear Professor …,

I would appreciate it very much if you could send us a 200-word abstract of your article “Biological Nitrogen Fixation” for publication in “Chemical Abstracts.”

We look forward to receiving this abstract in the not-too-distant future.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Editor-in-Chief

Letter 2

Dear Dr. …,  

Recently I have read an abstract of your article published in “Chemical Abstracts”, June 20.. “The Ultimate Control of Nucleotide Pattern in RNA”. I would very much appreciate having a reprint of this paper and kindly ask you to send it to me at your earliest convenience.

Yours faithfully,

Name

 

 

Letter 3

Dear Prof. …,

Would it be possible for you to help us collect samples of … We intend to elaborate an entirely new system of classification based on the principles of … Your assistance in this undertaking would be of great service to us.

Yours sincerely,

Name

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some more phrases used in making a request:

Please acknowledge the receipt of the following publication (reprint) … .

Please let me know whether I may have the text of my paper distributed among the participants.

Could you inform me about the conference agenda in more detail?

I would appreciate further details about the symposium.

I would very much appreciate information about accommodation, travel and living expenses and the terms of financing them.

We would like your permission to translate your reprint and submit it to (publish it in) the Journal of Mathematics.

I would like to ask you to … .

Could you please ….

I would be very grateful to you if you could … .

 

TASKS:

  1. Write a letter expressing a request to exchange scientific information. Explain why you are interested in such an exchange.
  2. Write a letter requesting a reprint of the paper that was published in “Chemical Abstracts,” December 19, 2007, under the title … .
  3. Write a letter asking Dr…. to supply you with the recent experimental data on… . Explain why you need them.

 

3.1. Favourable Replies

TASK: Now read the following samples and note how to reply a request favourably.

Letter 1

Dear Dr. … ,

I acknowledge the receipt of your letter of May 15, in which you ask me to supply you with samples of … I have already instructed (advised) some of my co-workers to collect the following samples for you:

  1. 1.    
  2. 2.    
  3. 3.    

The elaboration of a new classification on the basis of … is exceedingly interesting and useful, especially in our field of work. I hope to send you the samples in a couple of days.

I am happy to be of assistance and wish you much success in your undertaking.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Letter 2

Dear Sir,

I acknowledge receipt of your letter of April 5 and thank you very much for the data you have sent. I particularly appreciate the time you took to explain the investigation methods of your work. The results of your investigation strengthened my desire to pursue a career with electrical systems.

At your request I have enclosed my design project which includes a design, cost breakdown, and complete thermodynamics analysis of a plutonium-core reactor. I believe that this project is a good representation of not only what I have learned in my Engineering Physics curriculum, but also what I can produce for electrical systems

I would appreciate it very much if you continue sending me experimental data as I need additional information on the problem investigated.

Thank you for your consideration, and please feel free to contact me with any further questions. I look forward to the prospect of working with you.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Letter 3

Dear Sir,

We acknowledge the receipt of your letter of April 5 and thank you very much for the abstract you have sent. We would appreciate it if you could send us abstracts published in “Physical Review”.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Editor-in-chief

 

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some more examples of favourable responses to a request:

I am happy to be of help to you.

I am pleased that I can offer you this help.

If I can be of any further help please do not hesitate to contact me (to let me know) at once.

If you require further information on …, I will be happy to help you … .

The only help (advice) that I can offer (give) you is … .

I am glad that I can help you in this matter.

I assure you that such an exchange of publications will be to the mutual benefit of natural science research.

As for your request, let me assure you that when the book comes off the press I will be delighted to send you a copy.

 

TASKS:

  1. Write a letter in which you:

a)     acknowledge the receipt of the letter;

b)    respond to the request in a favourable way;

c)     offer your help if it is needed in the future.

  1. Write a letter in which you:

a)     inform Prof. … about the receipt of a letter;

b)    respond to the request, expressing your pleasure to be of help in … .

 

3.2. Unfavourable Replies

  1. Read the samples and note how to give an unfavourable reply to a request letter:

Letter 1

Dear Dr. …,

In reply to your letter of May 15 I am very sorry to inform you that I am unable to help you in your undertaking as there are no samples available in our laboratory at present.

We are planning an expedition for July-August and hope to collect enough samples both for you and for ourselves.

Again, I wish to express my regret.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Letter 2

Dear Professor …,

I have just received your letter of May 12 requesting a contribution to Physical Review. I am extremely grateful for your kind invitation. However I am afraid I shall have to decline it, as only a small part of my work covers the subjects your journal deals with.

I express my regret once again.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Letter 3

Dear Prof. …,

In reply to your letter of January 3, I regret very much to inform you that I cannot provide you with the reprint you asked me about as I do not have any extra copies. The only suggestion I can make is that you write directly to the Journal of Biological Chemistry. Perhaps they will be able to send you a copy.

Best wishes and regards,

Yours sincerely,

Name

 

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

        

Here are some more samples of unfavourable responses to requests:

I very much regret/I am sorry that I am unable to help you in any way.

I regret very much that I am not in a position to … .

I regret that it has not been possible for me to help you.

Unfortunately I am unable to … .

I very much regret that I have to decline your request to contribute to … .

I am very sorry that I cannot … .

I am very sorry to be unable to … .

I regret to inform you that I am not able to … .

I must apologize to you for having to … .

 

TASKS:

1.  Write a letter in which you:

a)     confirm the receipt of a letter;

b)    express regret at being unable to comply with a request regarding the reprint of the paper …;

c)     state the reason why you cannot comply with the request.

2.  Write a letter in which you:

a)       apologize for taking a long time to answer;

b)       express regret that you are not in a position to deliver a series of lectures on … as circumstances confine you to your work in your laboratory;

c)        ask to convey your apologies to Dr. … for … .

 

COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE:

Task: Write a letter to James Smith, а postgraduate at MTI, USA. Acknowledge the receipt of his letter, apologize for not sending the reprint he asked about until now. Explain the reason (you were away on business) and enclose the copy of the reprint.

 

Unit 4. Letters of Inquiry

A letter of inquiry asks a person to supply certain information or knowledge.

Task: Read the samples and note how to express inquiry.

 

Letter 1

Dear Colleagues,

Our Institute is running a series of experiments on … According to our preliminary data we have come to the conclusion that … .

Professor … , who works in your Institute, was kind enough to inform me of the results obtained in his laboratory. He also mentioned that you were experimenting on … .

I would like very much to compare our data with those obtained by you. Would you be willing to inform me how satisfactory they proved to be.

I am particularly interested in the following issues:

…………………………………………………………………………….

I shall appreciate any information you can possibly provide and look forward to the opportunity to return the favour.

Thank you in advance for a favourable reply to my inquiry.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Letter 2

Dear Professor …,

Our laboratory intends to start a research centered on X-ray structural analysis of different biological substances. We are planning to investigate the influence of particle additions on the polypeptide crystal structure. Meanwhile, we have started collecting literature on this subject. With this purpose in mind we are writing to inquire whether you would be able to provide us with a list of references or with any information available.

I would very much appreciate it if you consider my request. We would like to maintain scientific collaboration with your laboratory and exchange data and information on research results.

We hope you will also be interested in such contacts. Please accept my apologies for any inconvenience I have caused you.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely yours,

Name

Chief of the Sander’s Laboratories

 

Letter 3

Dear Dr. …,

In the journal … I’ve read your paper entitled …. The results obtained are interesting, and the investigation methods are excellent. I would like to follow your methods in my work, but there are some steps that are not quite clear to me. I am writing to inquire whether it would be possible to visit your laboratory, so that I could work there, say for a month, and learn about your techniques in more detail. In return, it would be a great pleasure to invite you to work in my laboratory for an equal period of time or longer.

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours sincerely,

Name

 

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some phrases and sentences to make an inquiry:

May I inquire why … .

I wish to inquire about … .

I would like to ask if … .

I hope you will give attention to my inquiry on

 

 

 

TASKS:

  1. Write a letter of inquiry in which you:

a)       present the subject and the purpose of your inquiry;

b)       make an inquiry;

c)        express your appreciation for the information you hope to receive.

 

4.1. Favourable Replies

TASK: Now read the samples and note how to give a favourable reply to an inquiry:

Letter 1

Dear Mr. Smith,

I am very glad to know that you are also doing experiments in … It gives me great pleasure to send you the data I have obtained. We chose these stimulants for several reasons:

…………………………………………………………………………..

I hope you find this information useful. In return I would much appreciate if you send me your reprint of … .

If I can be of any further assistance, please do not hesitate to write to me.

With best wishes,

Name

Letter 2

Dear Dr. …,

Returning to your letter of April 7, we have the pleasure to inform you that we have received two copies of the proofs of your paper.

Yours sincerely,

Editor-in-chief

 

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some more samples how to reply to an inquiry favourably:

In reply to your inquiry of (date) I am glad to inform you that … .

It gives me great pleasure to send you… . If I can be of any further help, please do not hesitate to contact me.

In accordance with your inquiry of …, I am delighted to send you a list of references and data on … .

 

TASKS:

  1. Write a letter in which you:

a)            acknowledge the receipt of the letter of (date);

b)           provide information about the inquiry;

c)            express hope that the sender of the inquiry is satisfied with the information provided;

d)           express your willingness to be helpful in the future.

 

4.2. Unfavourable Replies

TASK: Read the samples and note how to make an unfavourable reply to an inquiry:

 

Letter 1

Dear Colleagues,

         Your letter of November 12 has reached me only today. I very much regret to inform you that I am unable to provide the information you requested. Our laboratory stopped experimenting in … three years ago. If you are interested in the results of our work, please consult the Physiological Review, v. 36, No. 3, July 2009.

Furthermore, I received a reprint from Dr. M. who deals with … and if you wish you may use my name when writing to him.

If I can be of any help to you in the future, do not hesitate to contact me.

Yours sincerely,

Name

 

Letter 2

Dear Professor …,

It was a pleasure to receive your letter of August 3 in which you asked me to send you a list of references and the data available on … .

As far as the reference list is concerned, I will be delighted to send it to you. Regarding the experimental data, however, I’m afraid I will be unable to provide this information to you since our data are only preliminary and require verification. We are looking forward to the publication of our paper in the Biophysics Journal. I can send you a reprint and its English translation as soon as it is published.

In your letter you suggest establishing scientific contacts through the exchange of data and information. We entirely support this idea and are willing to share materials available in our laboratory. Under a separate cover      I am sending you two reprints that, in my opinion, would be of interest to you. Moreover, an exchange of visits to both countries and a further exchange of publications would be greatly appreciated.

I hope the reference list is just what you need and it will be of help to you. If I can be of further assistance, please contact me.

Sincerely yours,

Name

Enclosure: reference list

 

           How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some more phrases and sentences used to make an unfavourable reply to an inquiry:

I am very sorry to inform you that I am unable to … .

I am awfully sorry that I cannot comply with your inquiry ….

I regret not being in a position to comply with your inquiry at present.

 

TASKS:

  1. Write a letter in which you:

a)       express appreciation for the inquiry;

b)       give the reason why you are not able to be of any help;

c)        suggest an alternative.  

  1. Write a letter in which you:

a)       acknowledge the receipt of the letter (date) …;

b)       express regret that you are not able to be of any help;

c)        express willingness to offer assistance in the future.

 

COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE:

Task: When looking through the “Physical Review” journal you came across a paper that was of great interest to you. You need additional information on the problem discussed. Write to the author and ask for more details.

 

 

 

 

Unit 5. Letters of Thanks

On receiving invitations, papers, reprints, books or valuable information you should send a letter of thanks, gratitude or appreciation to confirm their receipt.

Task: Read the samples and highlight the phrases and sentences expressing thanks, gratitude and appreciation:

 

Letter 1

Dear Dr. …,

I wish to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of April 6 and express my gratitude for sending me your book. It is of great help to me.

Yours sincerely,

Name

                                                Letter 2

Dear Dr. …,

We acknowledge the receipt of your letter of June 6, 2010 and thank you very much for the paper under the title … .

Yours sincerely,

Name

Letter 3

Dear Mr. …,

I am very happy to know that my paper …, was published in November’s issue of your journal. Thank you very much for sending me the reprint of my paper.

Sincerely yours,

Name

Letter 4

Dear Dr. …,

I wish to thank you for your kind letter of April 23.I am happy to inform you that we have used your method of cultivating unicellular algae and the results are remarkable. As soon as I complete the graphs and tables, I will send them to you for comparison.

You can hardly realize how much I appreciate the data you sent me via Prof. …. She has given me a short outline of the work you are carrying out in your laboratory at the moment. She is a very charming person and I enjoyed the talks and discussions that we had.

I look forward to seeing you at the Colloquium in August.

Yours sincerely,

Name

Letter 5

Dear Dr. …,

I am very grateful to you for your letter of May 5 in which you invite me to attend the XI International Congress on Nanostructures.

I have recently completed a series of experiments on … . The results obtained are beyond all our expectations. The subject of my presentation could be … .  I believe it is within the scope of this Congress.

Looking forward to seeing you soon.

Sincerely,

Name

 

         How many phrases have you noted? Which of them do you find most helpful in letter writing?

 

Here are some of phrases to acknowledge the receipt of letters and expressing gratitude for valuable information:

We are glad/pleased to receive your letter of February 4 ….

It was a great pleasure to receive your letter of April 10, … .

It is so kind of you to send me … .

I am delighted that you sent … .                                         

I am much obliged to you for sending me … .

I wish to thank you very much for your kind letter of … .

We thank you very much for … .

Many thanks for your letter of June 7.

I am most grateful to you for sending me … .

Thank you so much for … .

 

TASKS:

1.  Write a letter in which you:

a)     acknowledge the receipt of the letter of (date);

b)    express your gratitude to Dr. … for an invitation to the conference to be held in July in New York;

c)     express hope to meet him at the conference.

2.  Write a letter in which you:

a)  acknowledge the receipt of the letter of (date);

b)  express thanks for sending the reprint of the paper.

3.  Write a letter in which you:

a)  acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the journal …;

b)  write that on completing your experimental investigation  you will contribute another paper for publication.

 

COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE:

TASK: In response to your inquiry you have received a letter informing about the deadline for the publication of the papers. Acknowledge the receipt of the information and assure that the paper will be sent on time.

 

 

Module 5. The Grammar Section

Unit 1. The Passive Voice

1. Identify the passive structures and translate the sentences into Russian as shown in the following examples:

1.1 Example: The problem was discussed last week.

a)        Эта проблема была обсуждена на прошлой неделе.

b)         Эта проблема обсуждалась на прошлой неделе.

c)          Эту проблему обсудили на прошлой неделе.

  1. The statistical theory has been developed quite recently.
  2. The entire industrial and agricultural structure of our life is determined by our scientific knowledge.
  3. Much time and effort have been devoted to the development of electric driven equipment of light weight, small size and moderate cost.
  4. In ordinary air the initial electrons and ions are continuously supplied by ionization due to cosmic rays and radioactive radiation.
  5. Mathematics is loved by many, disliked by a few, admired and respected by all.

 

1.2 Example: Some words may be added about the course of the reaction.

                       Можно добавить несколько слов о ходе этой реакции.

  1. In connection with these facts many pressing problems must be solved.
  2. This less-well-known fact needs to be told and the average citizen should be informed about it.
  3. Atomic energy finds such wide application that our age might be called the age of atom.
  4. In view of the very large requirement for power no single supply authority can meet the entire demand.
  5. This problem cannot be dealt with unless more precise experimental data are received.

 

1.3 Example: It was found that the substance was radioactive.

                       Было установлено, что это вещество радиоактивно.

  1. It is assumed that the derivative has a constant value.
  2. It was thought that the cells passed two main phases during their growth.
  3. It is believed that in many instances the explanations have been clarified.
  4. It has been discovered that some elements have isotopes - the forms in which the nucleus can have more than one mass.
  5. It must be admitted that the problem of classification can be approached from different viewpoints.

 

1.4 Example: Reliable evidence was obtained to support the idea.

                      Были получены надежные доказательства в поддержку этой идеи. 

  1. The largest disagreement between the various data is discussed.
  2. New technique has been developed.
  3. The new data base has been created.
  4. A new hypothesis concerning the mechanism of this reaction has been suggested.
  5. Numerous classifications have been used.

 

2. Identify the passive structures followed by a preposition and translate the sentences into Russian as shown in the following examples

2.1 Example: Old traditions cannot be easily done away with.

                      От старых традиций нельзя легко отказаться.

  1. This theory has been referred to.
  2. The quality of the instruments used can be safely relied upon.
  3. Many materials now in common use were not even thought of 30 years ago.
  4. Some of the data obtained cannot be relied upon, others have not been published yet.
  5. The two basic principles of selecting samples for the experiment were insisted on.
  6. The molecules of even a good insulator are acted upon by an electric field.
  7. With some phenomena of nature any precise quantitative data are impossible and the judgment of the observer must be relied on.
  8. The astonishing observational results obtained by the international group of astronomers were spoken about at the conference.
  9. For more detailed report the reader is referred to the preliminary notes on subject.

10.  The starting date of the experiment should be agreed upon.

 

2.2 Example: The question was alluded at the conference.                    

                       Этого вопроса коснулись на конференции.

  1. The experimental results cannot be improved by the existing theory.
  2. This sequence of events was brought about by the discovery of radioactivity.
  3. The changes taking place are not easily accounted for.
  4. The significance of the experiment should be commented on and explained by the observer.
  5. The working method of science may be dealt with in several ways.
  6. The problem of pollution was not even touched on some fifty years ago.
  7. There are fields which cannot be dealt with on a national scale only, such as environmental protection, space exploration and so on.
  8. Rapid development of chemical technology has been called for by the needs of the national economy.
  9. The samples of these three substances were subjected to the beam of X – rays to see what changes take place within them.

10.  This approach, which is the basis for much current work, will be referred to as the standard quasi-particle theory of XAS.

 

2.3 Example:

  • The rate of a reaction is influenced by many factors.

На скорость реакции влияют многие факторы.

  • The reaction is followed by temperature rise.

За реакцией следует повышение температуры.

  1. The first discovery was succeeded by many others.
  2. The performance of the device has been affected by many factors.
  3. These questions were answered in a series of investigations both experimental and theoretical.
  4. The Symposium   was   attended   by   twenty-seven astronomers.
  5. The introduction of a new theory is always followed by a period of extended testing.
  6. At the plenary section of the conference the participants were addressed by the Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  7. In several areas of research the efforts of scientists are joined by those of philosophers and sociologists.
  8. It must be admitted that the problem of classification can be approached from different viewpoints.
  9. Under these conditions the question cannot be answered unambiguously.

10.  The speed of the reaction was affected by the temperature rise.

 

3. Identify the passive structures and translate the sentences into Russian as shown in the following examples

3.1 Example: Care is to be taken to remove all the impurities.

                      Следует принять меры, чтобы убрать все примеси.

  1. Special attention has been called to the research work.
  2. Unfortunately no advantage was taken of the fast reaction rate.
  3. An attempt was made to measure samples by immediately raising the temperature.
  4. Special attention has been paid to the problem of direct conversion of energy into electricity.
  5. No attempts have been made to list all the contributions in which one or another procedure has been used.
  6. There is no doubt that in the course of further development of all sciences extensive use will be made of modern computing machines.
  7. Particular attention is paid to some safety devices.
  8. Advantage should be taken of the low melting point of this substance.
  9. So far no notice has been taken of the obvious advantage in connection with a new space project.

10.  Mention has already been made of the fact that gold is slowly attacked by these substances.

 

Progress Test

Identify the passive structures and translate the sentences into Russian

  1. Power is the rate at which energy is being spent, or the rate at which work is being done.
  2. The advantage of this technique was recognized by many scientists.
  3. Some properties of metals are dealt with in this chapter.
  4. All forces occur in pairs, which may conveniently be spoken of as action and reaction.
  5. Certain special steps were taken to reduce the weight of the mechanical part.
  6. The results were affected by the presence of impurities.
  7. In effort to overcome these difficulties a great deal of experimental work has been carried out by the specialists.
  8. The analysis will be followed by a review of the experimental data.
  9. These mixtures are referred to as gases.

10.  Solar radiation is influenced by the Earth’s magnetic field.

 

Unit 2. The Infinitive

1. Identify the functions of infinitives and give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples. Translate the sentences into Russian

1.1 Example: То explain this simple fact is not so very easy.

a)        Объяснить этот простой факт не так легко.

b)        Объяснение этого простого факта является не таким легким.

  1. To give a true picture of the surrounding matter is the task of natural science.
  2. To compare the theoretical data with the findings obtained in the series of experiments was necessary for further simulations of the process.
  3. To consider the special properties of matter in the colloidal state would be outside the scope of this book.
  4. To coordinate the work of many groups of scientists who do research in this field is a very difficult task.
  5. To increase the amount of heat passing through the body is to increase the temperature difference.
  6. It is impossible to say when electricity was first discovered.
  7. To define the amplitude of a wave is to determine the maximum value of the displacement.
  8. To heat a body is to bring it into a contact with a body at a higher temperature.
  9. To make a choice between these two alternatives is not an easy task.

10.  To make such a prognosis means to learn from the past experience and to extrapolate the knowledge into the future.

 

 

 

1.2 Example: To solve this problem you have to carry out a lot of experiments.

Для того чтобы решить эту проблему, вам придется провести много экспериментов.

  1. To be able to forecast the future we must begin by a thorough analysis of the past course of events.
  2. To understand the importance of this discovery we should know all the facts concerning the history of the problem.
  3. It has become possible to modify the Periodic Table so as to bring out the structural features more clearly.
  4. Experience shows that science can be put to many good uses, but also that it has been used to cause great harm.
  5. To improve the accuracy of the device a number of investigations were made.

 

1.3 Example: The technique of collecting information will differ according to the problem to be solved.

a)       Методика подбора информации будет различаться в зависимости от проблемы, которую надо решить.

b)       Методика подбора информации будет различаться в зависимости от проблемы, которую будут решать.

  1. The theory to account for these changes has not been developed yet.
  2. An interesting distinction to be made here is between problems and techniques.
  3. At that time the project, later to be taken over by another laboratory, was still in progress.
  4. An important point to be dealt with in the next chapter is different techniques of data-processing.
  5. There is not very much experimental data on which to base a decision between these two possibilities.

 

2. Identify the infinitive constructions with the "Complex Object" and give equivalents as shown in the example.

Example: Most scientists expect major development in the near future to take

                 place in biology.

Большинство ученых ожидает, что основные открытия в ближайшем будущем произойдут в биологии.

  1. We expect a successful scientist to be full of curiosity – he wants to find out how and why the universe works.
  2. One can expect the scope of research to expand steadily.
  3. Most scientists regard biology, rather than physics, to become a central ground of scientific advance in the near future.
  4. An efficient laboratory head always knows how to make his people do their work properly and on time.
  5. Nowadays we see many new areas of research to come into being as a result of unexpected breakthroughs.
  6. Scientists don’t consider this effect to be an experimental error of any kind.
  7. We may assume the composition of the sun and stars to be similar to that of the earth.
  8. They considered all water on the surface of this planet to have been liberated by volcanic action.
  9. One can hardly expect a true scientist to keep within the limits of one narrow long-established field, leaving most fascinating problems out of the scope of his inquiry.

10.  We expect entirely new properties to develop when these molecules or molecular aggregates interact with water, forming with it a new and unique system.

 

 

3. Identify the infinitive constructions with the “Complex Subject” and give equivalents as shown in the examples.

Examples:

  • Nowadays science is known to contribute to every aspect of man's life.

a)     Известно, что в наши дни наука вносит свой вклад во все аспекты нашей жизни.

b)    Как известно, в наши дни наука вносит свой вклад во все аспекты нашей жизни.

c)     В наши дни наука, как известно, вносит свой вклад во все аспекты нашей жизни.

  • With the advent of nuclear weapon some people seemed to be disappointed in science.

С появлением ядерного оружия некоторые люди, по-видимому, разочаровались в науке.

  •  Molecular biology is likely to dominate science in the years to come.
  • Весьма вероятно, что молекулярная биология займет в будущем доминирующее положение в пауке.
  1. A yawning ozone hole is reported to have been identified over the Antarctic.
  2. Harmful effects of pollution seem to have been in the news for a long time.
  3. One more type of pollution proves to have appeared recently.
  4. All of us are certain to know very well what environmental pollution is.
  5. You seem to have taken advantage of the favourable conditions.
  6. The research is supposed to lead to a better understanding of the progress.
  7. Molecular biologists are known to borrow their techniques from other sciences, mainly from physics.
  8. This phenomenon does not appear to be studied.
  9. There does appear to be some correlations between these data.

10.  This compound is sure to contain admixtures.

 

4. Identify the infinitive constructions with "for-phrases" and give equivalents as shown in the example.

Example:  It is important for the model to be accurate but simple enough.

 Важно, чтобы модель была точной, но достаточно простой.

  1. For any scientific gathering to be a success, the organizing committee must be firm on more than one point.
  2. For scientific development to be of benefit for man, scientists must study the problems that have direct bearing on our lives.
  3. For an original idea to be a product of one man's genius is quite natural.
  4. For an idea to be transformed into a product, many people's effort is required.
  5. Some experiments prove that it is physically possible for the ground ice of Alaska to have been formed by a process of segregation.

 

Progress Test

  1. To understand this phenomenon is to understand the structure of atoms.
  2. (In order) To understand the phenomenon the laws of motion should be considered.
  3. There seems to be some confusion of terms in the paper.
  4. In an effort to overcome these difficulties a great deal of experimental work has been carried out by both researchers and engineers.
  5. This method was so accurate as to give reliable results.
  6. He was considered to have a strong affinity for both chemistry and mathematics.
  7. It required some more experiments for the scientist to prove the correctness of the results obtained.
  8. There are many examples to illustrate the rule.
  9. Science is known to affect the lives of people.

10.  The terms to be insisted on are as follows.

 

Unit 3. The Gerund

1.1 Identify the gerund in the function of the subject. Give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

Example: Solving the problem is very important.

a)            Решение этой проблемы очень важно.

b)           Решить эту проблему очень важно.

  1. Carrying out experiments is a must with every scientist.
  2. Protecting the personnel against radioactive radiation holds an important place at the atomic power plant.
  3. Taking into account individual components resulted in a radical change of entire system.
  4. Forecasting the weather with great accuracy is no easy matter.
  5. Programming a computer involves analysing the problem to be solved and a plan to solve it.
  6. Arguing is a good way to make people believe you.
  7. Dividing the total charge by the number of ions in the cloud gives the charge of each ion.
  8. Applying powerful machinery and chemical fertilizers means achieving a tremendous growth of the total amount of agricultural products.
  9. Making these calculations may be a very difficult and time-consuming procedure.

10.  Increasing the proportion of fuel reduces the critical size of the reactor.

 

 

 

 

1.2 Identify the gerund in the function of the object. Give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

 

A) Example:

  • We suggest discussing the problem.

a)     Мы предлагаем обсудить эту проблему.

b)    Мы предлагаем провести обсуждение этой проблемы.

  • He hates being asked to repeat experiments several times.

Он не любит, когда его просят повторять эксперименты несколько раз.

  1. The ammeter stopped working because the coil was short-circuited.
  2. Gases and liquids return to their original form as soon as the applied force has stopped acting.
  3. There is hardly any person who likes being criticized.
  4. He likes being reminded of things.
  5. The ability of a solid to resist being altered in shape is termed rigidity.

 

B) Example:

  • It is worth considering all the data obtained.

Стоит рассмотреть все полученные данные.

  • It is no good (no use) considering all the obtained data.

Не имеет смысла (бесполезно) рассматривать полученные данные.

  • One cannot help considering all the obtained data.

Нельзя не рассмотреть все полученные данные.

  1. We cannot help acknowledging the importance of this statement.
  2. I couldn’t help mentioning the results of our investigation at this meeting.
  3. It is no use devoting too much time to this problem without specifying all the details of the procedure.
  4. It is no use undertaking this research without initiating preliminary studies of the observational data.
  5. It is worth proving the reliability of the data obtained.

C) Example:  The scientist succeeded in obtaining reliable results.

                          Ученому удалось получить надежные результаты.

  1. Archimedes is credited with applying huge lenses.
  2. They were surprised at being informed of our experiments.
  3.  Catalysts aid in accelerating reactions.
  4. Our success depends on being supplied with the necessary equipment.
  5. It was James Clerk Maxwell who first succeeded in evolving a truly adequate theory of electricity and magnetism.
  6. They objected to using greater voltage in this case.
  7. The experiment resulted in obtaining valuable data.
  8. A cure for the common cold may result from research analyzing the DNA of a family of viruses.
  9. The scientists insisted on using this technique to get better results.

10.  This software will prevent a virus from spreading.

 

D) Example: We have a chance of solving some important problems.

a)       У нас есть возможность решить несколько важных проблем.

b)       У нас есть возможность решения несколько важных проблем.

  1. The device has the merit of being suitable for many purposes.
  2. The way of avoiding these difficulties is unknown at present.
  3. The idea of using this technique is new and somewhat unexpected.
  4. There is some reason for questioning this assumption.
  5. Scientists were looking for a way of converting solar energy and making it serve people directly.

1.3 Identify the gerund in the function of adverbial modifies. Give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

Examples:

  •   In making observations extreme care to avoid errors is necessary.

a)           При проведении наблюдений необходимо быть предельно                    осторожным, чтобы избежать ошибок.

b)           Проводя наблюдения необходимо

c)            Когда проводят наблюдения, надо быть ...

  •  On reaching the boiling point the water temperature no longer increases.

a)        После достижения /По достижению точки кипения температура воды больше не повышается.

b)        Достигнув точки кипения, температура воды больше не повышается.

  •   By using the calculus a mathematician can find out how these two quantities - whatever they are - are varying with each other.

a)            При помощи вычисления математик может выяснить, как эти две величины, какими бы они ни были, влияют друг на друга.

b)           Используя вычисления, математик может выяснить, как эти две величины, какими бы они ни были, влияют друг на друга.

  •  They could not start a new experiment without verifying the previous data.

Они не могли начать новый эксперимент, не проверив ранее полученные данные.

  1. Without actually making calculations, we cannot deduce some general properties which the self-consistent model should have.
  2. In considering the chemical properties of metals the first point which must be mentioned is that they vary widely in degree of chemical activity.
  3. By having defined one’s research objective one has already made the first, and the most important step towards the final success.
  4. It is important to reemphasize this point by stating these ideas in a different way.
  5. On being heated to a sufficient temperature any body becomes a source of light.
  6. In studying the theory of semiconductors Joffe had in mind the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity.
  7. On standing for some weeks the uranium solution gradually regains its initial activity.
  8. Metals cannot be dissolved without being changed into new substances.
  9. Astronomers get a fairly good idea of the chemical composition of the Universe by studying the light from the stars and the sun.

10.  Superheating is a process of heating a liquid above its boiling point without converting it into vapor.

 

2. Identify the gerund construction and its function in the sentence. Give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

Examples:

  • Newton’s having formulated this law was of great importance.

То, что Ньютон сформулировал этот закон, имело огромное значение.

  • Their having obtained new data is of great interest.

То, что они получили новые данные, представляет большой интерес.

  • We know of work and energy being closely related.

Мы знаем, что работа и энергия тесно связаны между собой.

  1. They rely on your having carried out the experiment.
  2. Researchers’ working together and their sharing ideas with one another is of great advantage for science.
  3. The difference between the two values probably accounts for the measured sensitivity being higher than that predicted by theory.
  4. Einstein's being awarded the Nobel Prize in physics soon become widely known.
  5. Plants are useful sources of energy thanks to their storing the sun's radiation in chemical form.
  6. In spite of its being called a dry cell, that cell is not really dry, everybody knows of its containing moisture.
  7. Its being theoretically correct did not make it less cumbersome.
  8. Scientists’ constantly exploring the unknown, their looking for new knowledge and the answers to unsolved questions cannot be overestimated.
  9. Mendeleev’s having established a periodic law of nature has                      entered his name into the history book of the world science.

10.  Immediate recognition of a discovery depends largely on its being made at a proper moment.

 

Progress Test

Identify the gerund and gerund constructions. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. Ice melting begins at zero degrees C.
  2. In recent years man has succeeded in controlling chemical changes.
  3. In performing the experiment they observed the change in the properties of the substance.
  4. There is little probability of atmosphere being on that planet.
  5. One cannot help recognizing the importance of the study.
  6. These substances are alike in having high melting points.
  7. In spite of not having any university education, Faraday made his great discoveries.
  8. This phenomenon depends on the atomic weights of the substances being equal.
  9. Computers gain an ever increasing application due to there being constantly improved.

10.  Roentgen’s having discovered X-rays contributed much to the world’s science.

 

Unit 4. The Participle

1. Identify the forms of the participles in the function of attributes. Give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

1.1 Examples:

  • The device using the energy was rather powerful.

Прибор, использующий энергию, был довольно мощным.

  • The device used in the experiment was rather powerful.

Прибор, использованный в этом эксперименте, был довольно мощным.

  • The device being used in the experiment is rather powerful.

Используемый прибор в этом эксперименте довольно мощный.

  1. Natural science is the main characteristic feature distinguishing the present civilization from the other civilizations in the past.
  2. The latest model now being tested accounts for many of the previously unknown phenomena.
    1. The scientist theoretically predicted complicated interaction between the components involved in the process.
    2. The results obtained are consistent and may be summed up in one simple rule.
    3. The paper being referred to is published in the journal.

1.2 Examples: The properties of the substances involved/concerned are not yet clear.

a)  Свойства рассматриваемых веществ, до сих пор еще не ясны.

b)  Свойства веществ, о которых идет речь, до сих пор еще не ясны.

  1. The technique involved was quite new.
  2. The phenomenon concerned is difficult to explain.
  3. We have to consider all the factors involved.
  4. The complexity of the technique involved increased considerably.
    1. None of the authors concerned had based his experiment on the method discussed.

 

2. Identify the participles in the function of adverbial modifiers. Give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

A) Examples:

  • Testing the new device scientists used…

      Тестируя новый прибор, ученые использовали…

  • Having tested the new device, the scientists used

    Протестировав новый прибор, ученые использовали…

  • Being tested in the laboratory, the new device demonstrated…

                      Когда (При/Будучи) новый прибор тестируют (тестировании/тестируемым) в лаборатории, он…

  • Having been tested, the new device...-

    После того, как новый прибор протестировали, он...

  1. Recognizing the problem the scientist makes the first step to its solution.
  2. Being separated from the sun by vacuum the earth receives its heat by radiation.
  3. Having been seen in action the device was greatly modified.
  4. The scientist is often interested in a problem, disintegrating possible consequences of its solution.
  5. Every new idea is immediately taken up and developed further, forming the initial point of an avalanche-like process.
  6. Having been tested the new equipment was installed in the laboratories.
  7. Having changed the traditional approach, they succeeded in solving the problem.
  8.  Using radioactive isotopes, biologists are able to carry out new kinds of research.
  9. Being influenced by temperature and pressure, the volume of any substance is not constant.

10.  Having alloyed copper with tin Greeks and Romans formed a new alloy called "bronze".

 

B) Example: (When/While) Working at the laboratory he made many experiments.

  • Работая в лаборатории, он провел много экспериментов.
  • Когда он работал….
  • При работе
  1. While designing new kinds of experiments we don’t have to bear in mind the advantages of previous ones.
  2. When dealing with gases it is common practice to consider them under a pressure of the atmosphere.
  3. Calculating the weight of a body we have to multiply its specific gravity by its volume.
  4. When studying a compound we have to know the chemical formulae and the valences of the elements involved.
  5. Travelling in a curved path around the Earth, the Moon is continually changing the direction of its velocity.

C) Examples:

  • When/While heated all substances expand.

a)       Нагреваясь, все вещества расширяются.

b)      Когда вещества нагревают, все они расширяются.

c)       При нагревании все вещества расширяются.

d)      Будучи нагретыми, все вещества расширяются.

  • It is common observation that bodies expand when heated.

Общеизвестно, что тела расширяются при нагревании (если их нагревают/ когда их нагревают).

  1. A metal gives off free electrons when heated.
  2. While arranged according to their atomic weights the elements exhibit an evident periodicity of properties.
  3. When represented by arrows the forces can be easily computed.
  4. This substance changes its properties when subjected to high temperature.
  5. When properly insulated the wire may be used in conditions of excessive moisture.

 

3.  Identify the Absolute Participle Constructions and give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

A) Examples:

  • A new theory being suggested, scientists will be able to use it.

После того как была предложена  новая теория, ученые изменили методику проведения эксперимента.

  • There being no atmosphere, the lunar surface is exposed to direct sunlight.

Так как (поскольку) на Луне отсутствует атмосфера, то её поверхность подвергается воздействую прямых солнечных лучей.

  • Weather permitting, the astronomer will proceed with his observation.

Если погода позволит, астроном продолжит свои наблюдения.

  1. The sun being near the zenith, its rays are nearly vertical.
  2. The Earth's orbit being an ellipse, the distance between the Earth and the sun constantly changes.
  3. The temperature increasing, we may expect the resistivity of the material decreasing.
  4. The new approach showing promise, we began to develop it.
  5. The device being repaired, we shall be able to use it.

 

B) Example: The atmosphere always contains some moisture, the amount varying all the time.

 Атмосфера всегда содержит какое-то количество влаги, причем/ при этом, а, и/ это количество все время изменяется.

  1. The astronomer proceeded his observation, the sky having cleared.
  2. The term "speed" means the rate of motion, the term "velocity" meaning the speed in a definite direction.
  3. Power is the basis of civilization, all, industry and transport being dependant upon power in some form.
  4. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons, the number of protons being equal to the number of electrons.
  5. Special cameras may be used to photograph the ocean bed, the photographs showing any rocks and living organisms at depths of more than three kilometers.

 

 

 

4. Identify the Absolute Participle Constructions preceded by the preposition "with". Give Russian equivalents as shown in the following examples.

Examples:

  • With research involving more and more people the profession of a scientist has become one of the most popular nowadays.

По мере того, как научное исследование требует участия все большего числа людей, профессия ученого стала одной из самых популярных в наши дни.     

  • The mixture of fuel and air prior to ignition is of heterogeneous nature, with atomization, vaporization and mixing occurring simultaneously.

Смесь топлива и воздуха перед воспламенением имеет гетерогенный характер, причем распыление, испарение и смешивание происходят одновременно.

  • With the experiments having been carried out, they started new investigations.

После того как опыты были закончены, они начали новые исследования.

  1. With highly accurate numerical predictions having been made, the experimental results were in good agreement with the theory.
  2. With industrialization going on at its present rate, the world's fuel reserves will be exhausted within the near future.
  3. With cell phone rates dropping, some people are disconnecting their old, wired phones in their homes and offices and using cellular phones for all of their calling needs.
  4. With research involving more and more people the profession of a scientist has become one of the most popular nowadays.
  5. The Moon is mainly responsible for the tides on the Earth, with the Sun also assisting simply by its direct attraction of the water.

Progress Test

  1. With the experiments having been carried out, we started new investigations.
  2. Having made the measurements the experimenter then processed the data.
  3. The work performed by this scientist showed good results.
  4. This substance was more valuable than that obtained by the previous authors.
  5. The substance being investigated contained some admixtures.
  6. Having been weighed with insufficient accuracy the substance could not be used in quantitative analysis.
  7. The equipment needed for the experiment was carefully checked.
  8. The speed of light being extremely great, we cannot measure it by ordinary methods.
  9. The article discussed at the lesson yesterday deals with the problem of geology.

10.  The energy used per second is proportional to the frequency.

 

Unit 5.  Modal Verbs

Translate the sentences into Russian:

Examples:

  • You should complete your experiment by 5 p.m.

Вы должны закончить эксперимент к 5 часам.

  • You should have completed your experiment by 5 p.m.

Вы должны были бы закончить эксперимент к 5 часам (но этого не сделали).

 

  1. Not only must these questions be answered – someone must decide them.
  2. According to some authors, intelligent life on any planet should develop exponentially, with all the curves going infinitely upwards.
  3. Under such an assumption they ought to have arrived at completely different conclusions.
  4. By that time the resources of the planet may have been completely exhausted.
  5. The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small.
  6. They were to complete their research by the end of September, but they failed.
  7. They needn’t have carried out the test once more.
  8. Important as this question may be in itself, the debate on the subject went far beyond its original bounds.
  9. The program or the database does not have to be changed.

10.  Every visible event in nature can be explained by previous events.

 

Progress Test

  1. The velocity of a particle is to be continuously changing if this particle has uniform motion.
  2. However, they were confronted with pressing problems which they had to solve as well as they could.
  3. You might have made the experiment more carefully.
  4. To understand the importance of this discovery the student ought to know all the facts concerning the history of the problem.
  5. They needn’t use such complicated methods, there are some more simple and good ones.
  6. They could have done it more carefully.
  7. One should be very careful when working with strong acids.
  8. He cannot have made such a serious mistake.
  9. Some mistakes must have been made in the program.

10.  Simplification as a method of understanding can and must be the method of understanding any science.

 

 

 

 

Unit 6. The Subjunctive Mood

Translate the following sentences into Russian:

A) Examples:

  • It is important (necessary/desirable/required/possible…) that the substance (would) be pure.

Важно (необходимо/желательно/возможно…), чтобы вещество было чистым.

  • It is demanded (proposed/advised/suggested/insisted…) that the researcher (should) submit his paper on time.

Настаивают на том (предлагают/советуют…) чтобы исследователь представил свою статью вовремя.

  • We must keep this gas in a special vessel lest it be evaporated.

Мы должны содержать этот газ в специальном сосуде, чтобы он не испарялся. 

  1. It is desirable that this method should be used.
  2. The engineer proposed that a new alloy be used in the device instead of a rare metal.
  3. The scientist suggested that he would wait for a number of a new data obtained before making the experiment.
  4. It is necessary that atomic energy be used only for industrial purposes.
  5. The instruments were packed carefully lest they should be damaged during transportation.
  6. It is essential that scientists meet regularly to exchange views and information.
  7. They suggested that the new means of communication should be discussed at once.
  8. It is important that the conference cover a wide range of questions concerning the advantages of satellite communication.
  9. They required the sophisticated equipment, so that they could investigate these phenomena.

10.  Make exact calculations lest you should fail with your experiment.

                             

Progress Test

  1. He demanded that the device should be carefully examined.
  2. It is important that he should give his consideration on this subject.
  3. It is important that modern means of communication meet the requirements of the national economy.
  4. It is highly desirable that more radio-telescopes be applied for astronomical observation and measurements.
  5. We demand that such data find application on further work.
  6. It is necessary that the law should be observed.
  7. Не advised that the question be discussed immediately.
  8. We insisted that such actions might provide some information about the event.
  9. They applied new methods of work lest the productivity decrease.

10.  The engineer demanded that the engine parameters be taken into consideration.

 

Unit 7. Conditionals

Translate the following sentences into Russian:

A) Example:

  • If the distance between the two points be the same, no further experiments will be necessary.

Если расстояние между этими двумя точками будет одинаковым, не потребуется никаких дальнейших экс­периментов.

  • If I have time, I’ll complete the experiment.

Если у меня будет время, я закончу эксперимент.

B) Example:

  • If I had time, I would complete the experiment.

Если бы у меня было время, я бы закончил эксперимент.

  • If I were you, I would continue the work.

Если бы я был на вашем месте, то я продолжил бы работу.

  • Unless there were space meteorological stations, we would not be able to observe the formation of hurricanes.

Если бы не было космических метеостанций, мы не смогли бы наблюдать образование ураганов.

C) Example:

If I had had time yesterday, I would have completed the experiment.

Если бы у меня вчера было время, я бы закончил опыт        (но его у меня не было).

  1. If the model fits well, the observed data will be correct.
  2. A valuable contribution would be made, if considerable efforts were devoted to the theoretic examination.
  3. He would have solved the problem, if he had read enough on the subject.
  4. If it were not for their close cooperation with other laboratories, the task would not be accomplished in schedule.
  5. If he had been given opportunity, the work might have been finished.
  6. If the North Star ceased to exist, the Earth would continue to receive light for about half a century.
  7. Unless computer technique had been developed, space research would have never made such great progress.
  8. One will easily calculate the volume, if he knows the dimensions of a body.
  9. If the entire Earth were covered by the ocean, high and low tides would follow one another at regular intervals in response to rotation of the Earth and the revolution of the Moon.
  10. Provided one knows the rate of the emission, one can determine the range of the particles.

 

Progress Test

  1. Provided the acid was purified, the reaction would take place.
  2. If he had used this formula, he would not have made this mistake.
  3. We should not have been able to solve the equation, if we had not used the new technique.
  4. If life existed on Venus, we would know this.
  5. They could have done it, if they had obtained the necessary equipment.
  6. If we don’t raise the temperature, the pressure will not increase.
  7. If he had not done well on the training course, he could not have helped the team to cope with the problem.
  8. If there were no atmosphere, the temperature of the earth would raise to 200̊ F.
  9. Unless radio had been invented in the 19-th century, we couldn’t have created television in the 20-th century.

10.  If our laboratory has the laser equipment, we will be able to start the investigation in the near future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices

Appendix 1. Abbreviаtions Used in Science

A, amp. - ampere                                      ампер (ед. силы тока)

ABC plastics                                         пластмассы, состоящие из трех мономерных химикатов - aкрилонитрила, бутадиена и cтирола

abs.   - absolute                                     абсолютный

-  absolute value                             абсолютное значении,    

                                                 абсолютная величина                             

a.c. - alternating current                         переменный ток

amp-hr - ampere-hour                           ампер-час

anhyd. - anhydrous                               безводный

a.p. - atmospheric pressure                   атмосферное давление

approx. - approximately                       приблизительно

at.- atomic                                             атомный

atm. -  atmosphere                                атмосфера

aq. - aqueous                                         водный

b.p. - boiling point                                 точка кипения

B.T.U. - British Thermal Unit               Британская тепловая единица

c.c. - cubic centimeter                             кубический сантиметр

c.g. - centre of gravity                            центр тяжести

cgs - centimeter-gram-                              cистема единиц сантиметр-

         second (system)                                грамм-секунда (СГС)

cfm - cubic feet per minute                    кубические футы в минуту

cfs - cubic feet per second                      кубические футы в секунду

c.m. - cubic meter                                  кубический метр

cm - centimeter                                      сантиметр

coeff. - coefficient                                  коэффициент, константа

conc. - concentration                             концентрация

- concentrated                               концентрированный

const. - constant                                    константа, постоянная величина

crit. - critical                                          критический

cryst. - crystalline                                  кристаллический

cu ft - cubic foot                                    кубический фут

cu in - cubic inch                                   кубический дюйм

cu m or m3  - cubic meter                      кубический метр

d, dia - diameter                                    диаметр

d. - decomposed                                    расщепленный, распавшийся

db - decibel                                            децибел

d.c. - direct current                                постоянный ток, прямой ток

decomp. - decomposition                      разложение

deg - degree                                           градус

         C - degree Centigrade                   градусы по шкале Цельсия

         F - degree Fahrenheit                    градусы по шкале Фаренгейта

         K- degree Kelvin                           градусы по шкале Кельвина

         R - degree Reaumur                      градусы по шкалеРеомюра

dil. - dilute                                             разбавлять

dist. - distilled                                        перегнанный

doz - dozen                                            дюжина

e.m.f. - electromotive force                    электродвижущая сила

eq., eqn. - equation                                уравнение

eqv. - equivalent                                   эквивалент

expt. - experiment                                  эксперимент

eV - electron-volt                                   электронвольт

fig. - figure (diagram)                             иллюстрация, рисунок, чертеж

f.p. - freezing point                                точка (t°) замерзания, затвердевания, кристаллизации

fpm - feet per minute                             футы в минуту

fps - feet per second                               футы в секунду

fps - foot-pound-second (system)          система фут-фунт-сек.

f.s.d. - full-scale deflection                     отклонение на полную шкалу

ft - feet                                                   фут (около 30.5 см)

ft-lb - foot-pound                                  футо-фунт

g - gram                                                 грамм

gal - gallon                                             галлон (в Англии=4.54л.,

                                                                                 в США=3.78л.)

G.L.C. - Gas Liquid Chromotography  газожидкостная хромотография

gpm - gallon per minute                        галлон в минуту

H - henry                                               генри

h., hr - hour                                           час

hp - horsepower                                    лошадиная сила (ед. мощности)

hyd. - hydrated                                      гидратированный, гидратный

i.c. - insoluble circuit                              интегрирующая цепь

i.e. - (id est) that is                                 то есть

insol. - insoluble                                    нерастворимый

ips - inches per second                           дюймов в секунду

IR - infra-red                                         инфра-красный

i.r. - insoluble residue                               нерастворимый остаток

J - Joule                                                 джоуль

kc - kilocycle                                          килогерц

kg - kilogram                                         килограмм

kg-m - kilogram-meter                           килограммометр

kg/m3 - kilograms per cubic meter         килограмм на кубический метр

km - kilometer                                       километр

kv - kilovolt                                           киловольт

kw - kilowatt                                         киловатт

kwhr - kilowatthour                              киловатт-час

l - litre                                                    литр

lb - pound                                              фунт

lb-ft - pound                                          фунто-фут

lb-in - pound                                         фунто-дюйм

liq. - liquid                                             жидкость; жидкий

m - meter                                               метр

M or mu - micron                                  микрон

M - mole per litre                                   концентрация в молях на литр

Ma - microampere                                 микроампер

ma - milliampere                                   миллиампер

max. - maximum                                   максимум

MeV – megaelectronvolt                          мегаэлектронвольт

Mf - microfarad                                     микрофарада

mg - milligram                                       миллиграмм

min. - minimum                                     минимум

min - minute                                          минута

mm - millimeter                                     миллиметр

MMF -micromicrofarad                           микромикрофарада

m.p. - melting point                               точка (t°) плавления

mph - miles per hour                             миль в час

mv- millivolt                                          милливольт

NMR - nuclear magnetic resonance      ядерный магнитный резонанс (ЯМР)

NR - natural rubber                               натуральный каучук

oz - ounce                                              унция

p.d. - potential difference                       разность потенциалов

ppb - parts per billion                           миллиардные доли/ частей на миллиард

ppm - parts per million                         миллионные доли/ частей на    миллион

ppt. - precipitate                                    осадок; осаждать  

psi - pounds per square inch                  давление в фунтах на квадратный дюйм

psf - pounds per square foot                 фунты на квадратный фут

PVC - polyvinyl chloride                      поливинилхлорид (ПВХ)

R.F. - radio frequency                           высокая частота

r.a.m. - relative atomic mass                 относительная атомная масса

r.d. - relative density                             относительная плотность

r.h. - relative humidity                           относительная влажность

r.m.m. - relative molecular mass           относительная молекулярная масса

r.m.s. - revolutions per minute                  среднее квадратичное

rpm - revolutions per minute                обороты в минуту

rps - revolutions per second                      обороты в секунду

r.t. - room temperature                          комнатная температура

SBR - butadiene-styrene rubber            бутадиен, стирольный каучук

sec - second                                            секунда

sol. - soluble                                           растворимый

soln. - solution                                       раствор

sp. - specific                                           специфический, конкретный, точный, удельный

sq. - square                                            квадрат, площадь, прямоугольник

sq.ft. - square foot                                 квадратный фут

sq.in. - square inch                                квадратный дюйм

s.t.p. - standard temperature                  стандартные условия

           and pressure

temp. - temperature                               температура

u.v./ UV- ultra-violet                             ультрафиолетовая область спектра, ультрафиолет; ультрафиолетовый

v - volt; volume                                     вольт; том

va - volt-ampere                                    вольт-ампер

vac. - vacuum                                        вакуум, разрежение; вакуумный     

v.d. - vapour density                             плотность пара

vis. - visible                                            видимый

vol. - volume                                          объем

V.R. - velocity ratio                               коэффициент скорости

W - watt                                                ватт

wt. - weight                                            вес

yd - yard                                                    ярд

yr - year                                                 год

z. - zero                                                  ноль

 

Appendix 2. Latin Words and Abbreviations

A - acre                                                      акр

ab  initio                                                от начала

A.D. - anno domini                                нашей эры

a.m. - ante meridiem = before noon       до полудня

apriori                                                   заранее, независимо от нашего опыта

B.C. - before Christ                               до нашей эры

cf. - confer  =  compare                          сравни

c., ca - circa                                           приблизительно, около

e.g. (exempli gratia) = for example        например

et al. - and others                                   и другие

etc. = et cetera = and so on =

                         =and so forth                и так далее

et seq., et seqq. - et sequentia =

                     = and the following             и далее

ib., ibid. - ibidem = in the same place    там же

id - idem = the same                              тот же

i.e. - id est = that is                                то есть

in situ                                                    на месте

med. = medium                                      среда, середина, средний

N.B. - nota bene                                     примечание, отметка

op cit - opere annum = yearly                ежегодно, в год

pct - per centum = per cent                    процент

p.m. - post meridiem = after noon         после полудня

pro et con (pro et contra)                      за и против

qu - quasi = as if                                    как будто, как если бы

sc / scil - sciticet = namely, to wit           а именно

s.f. - sub finem = by the end                  к концу

terra incognita                                      незнакомая область

vers, vs. - Versus                                   против

vice versa                                               наоборот

viz - videlicet = that is to say,

        in other words                               то есть, а именно

v.v. - vice versa = that is opposite         наоборот

 

  Appendix 3.  Mathematical Symbols

+                    plus [plΛs]                 1) плюс

                                                         2) знак плюс

                                                         3) положительная величина

                                                         4) добавочный, дополнительный

-                     minus                         1) минус, без

                                                         2) знак минус

                                                       3) отрицательная величина   oтрицательный

±                     plus or minus [¢plΛs ɔ: ¢mainəs] плюс минус

× или ·           multiplication sign [¢mΛltipli¢kei∫ən ¢sain]          знак  умножения                 

.                      point [pɔint]      точка (в десятичных дробях)

 /                      (или : , или  —) division sign [di¢viʒn ¢sain]         знак деления

:                      1) ratio sign [¢rei∫iou ¢sain] знак отношения

                        2) is to [iz tu]       относится к

: :                    1) sign of proportion [¢sain әv prә¢pɔ:∫әn]     знак пропорции

                       2) equals, as [¢i:kwәlz, æz]  равняется, равно

÷                     (is) divided by [di¢vaidid ¢bai]      поделенное на

=                    1) sign of equality [¢sain әv i:¢kwәliti]   знак равенства

                       2) equals, (is) equal to        [¢i:kwәlz], [iz¢i:kwәl to]  равняется, равно

≠                     (is) not equal to [iz not ¢i:kwәl tu]         не равно

≈                     approximately equal [ә¢prɔksimitli ¢ i:kwәl]    приблизительно равно

≡                    is equivalent to/ is identical with   тождественно равный

>                    greater than [¢greitә ðæn]     больше (чем)

>                    not greater than [not ¢ greitә ðæn]         не больше (чем)

<                    less than [¢les ðæn]    меньше (чем)

<                    not less than [not ¢les ðæn] не меньше (чем)

³                     equal or greater than [¢i:kwәl ɔ: ¢ greitә ðæn]   больше (чем) или равно

£                     equal or less than [¢i:kwәl ɔ: ¢les ðæn] меньше (чем) или равно

∞                    1) infinity [in¢finiti]    бесконечность, бесконечно            удаленная точка

                       2) infinite [¢infinit]     бесконечный

œ                    varies as/ is proportional to   пропорционально чему-либо

3: 9 :: 4:12      three is to nine, as four is to twelve  3 к 9 относится, как 4 к 12

ε                     1) epsilonis      эпсилон

                       2) an element of (a set)   является элементом множества

x4                   [eks] to the power four/ to the fourth power   “х” в 4-й степени

π                     pi [pai]                   “пи”  (число Пи)

r                     [a: (r)] = radius of circle             “р”   ( радиус)

πr 2                            pi r squared [ ِ pai a: ¢skwεәd] (formula for area of circle)

                       “пи” “р” квадрат

a*                   a star [¢ei ¢sta:]           “а” со звездочкой

a¢                    a prime [¢ei ¢praim]    “а” штрих

a¢¢                   a second prime или a double prime       [¢ei ¢sekәnd  ¢praim],

                       [¢ei ¢dΛbl ¢praim]  “а” два  штриха

a¢¢¢                  a third prime или a triple prime [¢ei¢ θә:d ¢praim], [¢ei ¢triplpraim]      “а” три штриха

cm                   c sub m или c, m-th   [¢si: sΛb¢em], [¢si: ¢emθ]     “с” “м” (“с” с

                       индексом “м”)

a1¢                   a first prime   [¢ei ¢fә:st praim]             “а” один  штрих

a2¢                   a second,  a second prime   [¢ei ¢sekәnd], [¢ei ¢sekәnd ¢praim]

                       “а” два  штрих

am                   a sub m или a, m-th   [¢ei sΛb¢em], [¢ei ¢emθ]   “а” “м”

c                   b prime, sub c или b sub c, prime  [¢bi ¢praim sΛb ¢si:],              

                       [¢bi ¢ sΛb¢ si: ¢praim]         “б” целое штрих

log                  logarithm [¢logəriθəm]               логарифм

sin                  sine [sain]                          синус

cos                 cosine [¢kousain]               косинус

tan, tg             tangent [¢tænʤənt]            тангенс

ctn, cot           cotangent [¢kou¢tænʤənt] котангенс

%                   per cent   [pə¢sent]     процент

                  square root (out) of [¢skwεə ¢ru:t (aut) əv] квадратный корень из

                  cube root (out) of    [¢kju:b ¢ru:t (aut) əv]   кубический корень из

                  n-th root (out) of   [¢enθ¢ru:t (aut) əv]    корень n-й степени

[ ]                   brackets, square brackets      [¢brækits, skwεə ¢brækits]   

                       pl. квадратные скобки

( )                   parentheses, round brackets        [pə¢renθisi:z, ¢raund ¢brækits]   

                       pl. квадратные скобки

{ }                  braces    [¢breisiz]        pl. фигурные скобки

o                     degree   [di¢gri:]          градус

¢                      minute   [¢minit]         минута

¢                      foot, feet   [fut, fi:t]    фут, футы

¢¢                     1) second   [¢sekənd]  секунда

                       2) inch   [int∫]             дюйм

Р                   angle   [æŋgl]          угол   

                       right angle   [¢rait ¢æŋgl]          угол   

                       perpendicular   [pə: pən¢ dikjulə]       перпендикуляр,      перпендикулярный   

                 a (one) half

                  a (one) sixth

                  three fourths

   0                  [ou]; nought [nɔ: t]; zero [¢ziərou]

0.5                  (nought) point five

0.04                                       (nought) point two naughts four; two oes [ouz] four;

                       point zero zero four

0.28                nought point twenty eight

2.50                two point five (nought)

53.46              1) fifty-three point four six;

                       2) five three point four six

10,000            ten thousand

A0                               a to the power of zero

A2                   a squared

A3                   a cubed

10-5                  1) the minus fifth power of ten;

                       2) ten to the minus fifth power

102                 ten to the second (power), ten squared

10-1                 ten to the minus first (power)

103                 ten to the third (power), ten cubed

a=b                 1) a equals b

                       2) a is equal to b

a¹b                 a is not equal to b

a>b                 a is greater than b

a<b                 a is less than b

a>>b               a is much greater than b

a<<b               a is much less than b

a » b               a is approximately equal to b

ab                    a sub b, a subscript b

a+b                 a plus b

a-b                  a minus b

a´b                 a times b, a multiplied by b

a¸b                 a divided by b

                   a over b

                  a times b over c times d

[a]                  a in brackets

(a)                  a in parentheses

( )                   round brackets

[ ]                   square brackets

%                   per cent

52%               fifty-two per cent

             x squared divided by y cubed in parentheses to the mth (power)

                  square root of a

                  third (cube) root of a

ln x                 natural logarithm of x

log x               (common) logarithm of x

 logarithm of two to the base ten is naught point three, naught, one, naught three

 

Appendix 4. Numerical Expressions

                                                          US                       GB and other European

                                                                                                     countries

1 000 000 000 =109                     a/ one billion         a/ one thousand million(s)

                                                 [ə/ wΛn ¢biliən]          [ə/ wΛn ¢θauznd ¢miliən(z)]

                                                 [ə/ wΛn ¢biljən]          [ə/ wΛn ¢θauzənd ¢miljən(z)]

1 000 000 000 000 = 1012                 a/ one trillion              a/ one billion

                                                 [ə/ wΛn ¢triliən]          [ə/ wΛn ¢biliən]

                                                 [ə/ wΛn ¢triljən]          [ə/ wΛn ¢biljən]

1 000 000 000 000 000 =1015     a/ one quadrillion         a/ one thousand billion(s)

                                                [ə/ wΛn kwɔ¢driliən]  [ə/ wΛn ¢θauznd ¢biliən(z)]

                                                [ə/ wΛn kwɔ¢driljən]  [ə/ wΛn ¢θauznd ¢biljən(z)]

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 1018   a/ one quintillion    a/ one trillion

                                                [ə/ wΛn kwin¢tiliən]     [ə/ wΛn ¢triliən]

                                                [ə/ wΛn kwin¢tiljən]   [ə/ wΛn ¢triljən]

 

 

VULGAR FRACTIONS                       DECIMAL FRACTIONS

     1     an/ one eighth [ə/ wΛn ¢eitθ]           0∙125 (nought) point one two five

   8                                                         [(ِ nɔ:t) pɔint , wΛn tu: ¢faiv]   

     1     a/ one quarter [ə/ wΛn ¢kwɔ:tə(r)] 0∙25 (nought) point two five

   4                                                         [(nɔ:t) pɔint ,tu: ¢faiv]

 1     a/ one third [ə/ wΛn ¢θə:d]             0∙33 (ِ nought) point ,three ¢three

   3                                                        

 1     a/ one half [ə/ wΛn ¢ha:f US: ¢hæf]    0∙5 (ِ nought) point ¢five

   2

 3     three quarters [ِ θri: kwɔ:təz]         0∙75 (ِ nought) point  ,seven ¢five

   4

 

Notes. 1.  In the spoken forms of vulgar fractions, the versions ‘and a half/ quarter/ third’ are preferred to ‘and one half/ quarter/ third’ whether the measurement is approximate or precise. With more obviously precise fractions like 1/8, 1/16, ‘and one eighth/ sixteenth’ is normal. Complex fractions like 3/462, 20/83 are spoken as ‘three over four-six-two; twenty over eighty-three’, especially in mathematical expressions, e g ‘twenty-two over seven’ for 22/7.

2.  When speaking ordinary numbers we can use ‘zero’, ‘nought’ or ‘oh’ [əu] for the number 0; ‘zero’ is the most common US usage and the most technical or precise form, ‘oh’ is the least technical or precise. In using decimals, to say ‘nought point five’ for 0∙5 is a more precise usage than ‘point five’.

  1. In most continental European countries a comma is used in place of the GB/US decimal point. Thus 6∙014 is written 6, 014 in France. A space is used to separate off the thousands in numbers larger than 9999, e g 10 000 or 875 380. GB/US usage can also have a comma in this place, e g 7,500,000. This comma is replaced by a full point in continental European countries, eg 7.500.000. Thus 23,500∙75 (GB/US) will be written 23.500,75 in France.

 

Appendix 5.  Measurements (Inantimate)

in

inch(es)            

sq in                             

square inch(es)

cu in

cubic inch(es)

ft

foot/ feet

sq ft

square foot/ feet

cu ft                             

cubic foot/ feet

yd

yard(s)

sq yd

square yard(s)

cu yd

cubic yard(s)

mile(s)

square mile(s)

mm

millimetre(s)

mm2

square millimetre(s)

mm3

cubic millimeter(s)             

cm

centimetre(s)

cm2

square centimetre(s)

cm3 /cc 

cubic centimetre(s)

m

metre(s)

m2

square metre(s)

m3

cubic metre(s)

km

kilometre(s)

km2

square kilometre(s)

 

 

 

Appendix 6. Weights and Measures

 

 

    length

The Metric

 

GB and US

  10 millimetres (mm)

 100 centimetres

 

1000 metres

= 1 centimetre (cm)

= 1 metre (m)

 

= 1 kilometre (km)

= 0∙3937 inches (in)

= 39∙37 inches or    1∙094 yards (yd)

= 0∙62137 miles or about 5/8 mile

surface

 

 

100 square metres (m2)

100 acres

100 hectares

= 1 are (a)

= 1 hectare (ha)

= 1 square kilometre (km2)

= 0∙0247 acres

= 2∙471 acres

= 0∙386 square miles

weight

 

 

10 milligrams (mg)

100 centigrams

1000 grams

1000 kilograms

= 1 centigram (cg)

= 1 gram (g)

= 1 kilogram (kg)

= 1 tonne

= 0∙1543 grains

= 15∙4323 grains

= 2∙2046 pounds

= 19∙684 cwt

capacity

 

 

1000 millilitres (ml)

  

 10 litres

= 1 litre (1)

 

= 1 decalitre (dl)

= 1∙75 pints   (2∙101 US pints)

= 2∙1997 gallons (2∙63 US gallons)

 

 

Appendix 7.  Quantities, Units and Symbols

__________________________________________________________________ QUANTITY          SYMBOL    SI  UNIT       SYMBOL      DERIVATION

__________________________________________________________________

acceleration

acceleration due to gravity

amount of substance

amplification factor

angle

—, of incidence

 

—, of refraction

 

—, Bragg

—, critical

 

anode slope

resistance

a

g

 

n

μ

θ111

i

 

r

 

θ

c

 

RA

 

m s –2

m s –2

 

mole

a ratio

degree or

radian

degree or

radian

number

degree or

radian

ohm

 

 

mol

°

 

°

 

°

 

Ω

 

velocity/time
velocity/time

 

mole fraction (n) used

 

 

 

∆Va/∆Va

 

area

atomic number

Avogadro constant

breadth

capacitance

charge, electric

—, on electron

conductance

current, electric

decay constant

density

distance along path

efficiency

 

electrochemical

     equivalent

electromotive force

electron

energy

—, kinetic

—, potential  

Faraday constant

field strength, elec-

tric

magnetic

flux, magnetic

 

flux density

A

Z

L, NA

b

С

Q

e

G

I

λ

p

s

η

 

z

 

E

e

E

Ek

Ep

F

E

 

H

Ф

 

В

metres square

a number

number

metre

farad

coulomb

coulomb

ohm–1

ampere

a ratio

kg m–3

metre

a ratio

 

g C-1

 

volt

 

joule

joule

joule

coulomb mol-1

V m-1

 

ampereturns

weber

 

tesla

m2

m

F

С

С

Ω –1

A

m

 

 

V

 

 

J

J

J

С mol-1

 

Wb

Т

l x b

number of protons

fundamental unit

charge/p.d.

current x time

1∙6 х 10-19 С

reciprocal of resistance

fundamental unit

m/V

fundamental unit

work output/work input

mass/charge

 

energy/charge

N m

N m. Ek = ½mv2

N m. Ep = mgh

96 500 C mol-1

potential gradient:

p.d./dist.

current x no. of turns

e.m.f./rate of change of flux

flux/area

focal length

forse

free energy

frequency

gas constant

half-life, radioacti-vity

heat capacity

 

heat of reaction

heat capacity, spe-

cific

heat, quantity of height

image distance

inductance, mutual

 

 —, self

intensity of radia-tion

latent heat

—, specific

—, molar

length

magnetizing force

magnetic moment

 

magnification,

f

F

∆G

f

r

 

t½

С

 

∆H

c

 

q

h

v

M

 

L

I

 

L

l

Lm

l

H

m

 

m

metre

newton

joule

hertz

joule

 

second

J K-1

 

joule

J K-1 kg-1

 

joule

metre

metre

henry

 

henry

a number

 

joule

J kg-1

joule mol-1

metre

ampereturns
Wb m

 

a ratio

M

N

J

Hz

J

 

s

 

J

 

J

m

m

H

 

H

 

J

J

m

 

kg m s-2

 

oscillations/time

energy

 

fundamental unit

quantity of heat/temp.

rise

heat energy

heat capacity/mass

 

energy

fundamental unit

fundamental unit

induced e.m.f./rate

of change of current

 

 

quantity of heat

quantity of heat

quantity of heat

fundamental unit

torque in unit

magnetic  field

linear

mass

—, number

 

molar volume

molar solution

moment of force

neutron number

number

—, of molecules

—, of turns on coil

—, order of spectrum

object distance

peak current

peak e.m.f.

period

permeability

—,of vacuum

—, relative

permittivity

—,of vacuum

—, relative

potential, electric

potential difference

power

pressure

radius

 

m

A

 

Vm

M

N

n

N

n

p

 

и

I0

E0

Т

μ

μ0

μr

ε

ε0

εr

V

V

P

p

r

 

kilogramme

a number

 

(dm3)

a ratio

N m

a number

a number

a number

 

metre

ampere

volt

second

H m-1

H m-1

a ratio

F m-1

F m-1

a ratio

volt

volt

watt

pascal

metre

 

kg

 

 

m

A

V

s

V

V

W

Pa

m

 

fundamental unit

number of neutrons + protons

volume of 1 mole

moles/dm3

force x perp. distance

number of neutrons

 

fundamental unit

see current

see e.m.f.

fundamental unit

henry/metre

μ = μ/ μ0

farad/metre

farad/metre

εr = ε/ ε0

energy/charge

energy/charge

J s-1

N m-2 : force/area

fundamental unit

reactance

refractive index

resistance

resistivity, electrical

relative density

r.m.s. current

r.m.s. voltage

slit separation

tension

temperature, Celsius

temp, interval

temp, absolute

thickness

time

torque

turns ratio

(unit of electricity)

velocity

—, angular

—, of e.m. waves

—, of sound

volume

wavelength

work

 

weight

     X

n

R

ρ

d

I rms

Vrms

S

T

θ

θ

T

d

t

Т

Т

u, v

ω

с

v

V

λ

w

 

W

ohm

a ratio

ohm

ohm-metre

a ratio

ampere

volt

metre

newton

degree С

degree

kelvin

metre

second

N m

a ratio

k W h

m s –1

second –1

m s –1

m s –1

metre cubed

metre

joule

 

newton

Ω

Ω

A

V

m

N

°С

° or К

K

m

s

s -1

m3

m

J

 

N

E0 / l0

p.d./current

resistance x length

ρsubwater

see current

see e.m.f.

fundamental unit

see force

from kelvin

fundamental unit

fundamental unit

fundamental unit

see moment

nsec/nprim

kilowatt x hour

distance/time

angle/time

l x b x h

fundamental unit

force x distance      (N m)

kg m s~2 or mg

           

 

 

 

Appendix 8. Letters Used as Symbols for Quantities

____________________________________________________________

LETTER               QUANTITY

A                           area, mass number

a                 acceleration

B                magnetic flux density

b                 breadth

С                 capacitance, heat capacity

с                  specific heat capacity, velocity of e.m. waves in

 vacuum, critical angle

d                  relative density, thickness, distance apart
E                 energy, electric field strength, electromotive force. Ek kinetic

 energy, Ep potential energy, E0 peak e.m.f.

e                 charge on electron (or proton), an electron
F                 Faraday constant, force
f                   frequency, focal length
G                 free energy (∆G), conductance
g                  acceleration due to gravity
H                  magnetic field strength, magnetizing force, heat of reaction (∆H)
h                 height
I                   intensity of radiation, electric current.

 Io peak current

i                   angle of incidence
k                  a constant
L                  self inductance, latent heat, Avogadro constant.

 Lm molar latent heat

l                  length, specific latent heat
M                 mutual inductance, molar solution
т                 mass, electromagnetic moment, magnification
N                 number of molecules, neutron number.

 NA  Avogadro constant

N                a number, refractive index, number of moles, a neutron
P                 power

p                 pressure, order of a spectrum, a proton
Q                 electric charge
q                  quantity of heat

R                 resistance. RA anode slope resistance, molar gas constant
r                  angle of refraction, gas constant (nR), radius
s                  distance along a path, slit separation
Т                   period, thermodynamic (absolute) temperature, torque, tension,

 turns ratio

t                  time. t½ half-life
и                  initial velocity, velocity of molecules, object distance
V                 volume, electrical potential, potential  difference

 Vm                       molar volume

V                velocity, image distance, velocity of sound
W                 weight
w                 work

X                reactance

Z                 atomic number

z                  charge on ion, electrochemical equivalent

α                 an angle

∆                 an increment (finite)

ε                  permittivity

η                  efficiency

θ                  temperature (Celsius), temperature difference,

 an angle, Bragg angle

λ                 wavelength, decay constant
μ                 permeability, amplification factor
π                  ratio of circumference to diameter of circle
ρ                 density, resistivity
Ф                magnetic flux
φ                 an angle
ω                angular velocity

 

Appendix 9. Important Values, Constants and Standards

  1. s.t.p. = standard temperature and pressure, expressed as 1∙ 00 atm or

760 mmHg or 101 kPa (= kN m-2) (Pa = pascal) and   0°C or 273 ∙ 15 К

2.   Temperature of triple point of water, 273 ∙ 16 К

3.   Gas constant, R, 8 ∙ 314 JK-1 mol-1

4.   Standard volume of a mole of gas at s.t.p., 22 ∙ 4 dm3

5.   The Faraday constant, F, 9 ∙ 65 x 104 С mol-1

6.   The Avogadroconstant, L, 6 ∙ 02 x 1023 mol-1

7.   The Planck constant, h, 6 ∙ 63 x 10-34 Js

8.   Speed of light, c, 3 ∙00 x 108 m s-1

9.   Mass of proton, 11H, 1 ∙ 67 x 10-27 kg
mass of neutron,
01n, 1 ∙ 67 x 10-27 kg
mass of electron,
-10e, 9 ∙ 11 x 10-31 kg
electronic charge, e, -1∙ 60 x 10-19 C

10.   1 cal = 4 ∙ 18 J

11.   l eV = l ∙ 60 x 10-19 J

12.   Specific heat capacity of water, 4 ∙ 18 J g-1 K-1

13.   Ionic product of water, Kw = 1 ∙ 008 x 10-14 mol2 dm-6, at 289 К  (25°C)

 

 

Appendix 10.  Greek Alphabeth

Capital small

 Name

 

English     equivalent    

Russian equivalent

Aa

alpha

[¢ælfə]

a

альфа

Bb

beta

[¢bi:tə  US: ¢beitə]

b

бета

Gg

gamma

[¢gæmə]

g

гамма

Dd

delta

[¢deltə]

d

дельта

Ee

epsilon

[ep¢sailən  US: ¢epsilɔn]

e (short)

эпсилон

Zz                                                                    Zz

(d)zeta

[¢zi:tə US: ¢zeitə]

z

дзета

Hh

eta

[¢i:tə US: ¢eitə]

e (long)

эта

QJ

theta

[¢θi:tə US: ¢θeitə]

th

тэта

Ii

jota

[ai¢əutə] 

i

йота

Kk

kappa

[¢kæpə]

k

каппа

Ll

lambda

[¢læmbdə]

l

лямбда

Mm

mu

[mju:]

m

ми (мю)

Nn

nu

[nju: US: nu:]

n

ни (ню)

Xx

xi                                                                    xi                                                                   xi

[ksai]

x

кси

Oo

omicron

[ou¢maikrən US:  ¢omikrɔn]

o (short)

омикрон

 

Pp

pi

 [pai]

p

пи

Rr

rho

[rəu]

r

ро

Ss

sigma

[¢sigmə]

s

сигма

Tt

tau

[tau]

t

тау

Uu

upsilon

[ju:psai¢lən  US: ¢ju:psilɔn]

u

ипсилон

Fj

phi

[fai]

ph

фи

Cc

chi

[kai]

ch

хи

Yy

psi

[psai]

ps

пси

Ww

omega

[¢oυmigə US: əu¢megə]

o (long)

омега

 

 

Appendix 11. List of Chemical Elements

Ac – actinium                       [æk¢tiniəm]                            актиний       

Al – aluminium (GB)           [ِ ælju¢minjəm]                       aлюминий

     – aluminum (US)                                                        

Ag – argentum=silver          [α:¢dentəm]                            серебро

Am – americium                  [æmə¢risiəm]                         америций

Ar – argon                           [¢α: gɔn]                               аргон  

As – arsenic                          [¢α: snik]                               мышьяк        

At – astatine                         [ æstə¢ti: n]                            астат   

Au – aurum=gold                [¢ɔ: rəm], [gould]                  золотo

B – boron                             [¢bɔ: rɔn]                             бор

Ba – barium                         [¢bεəriəm]                              барий

Be – beryllium                     [be¢riljəm]                             бериллий

Bh – bohrium                      [bɔ: rrəm]                             борий

Bi  – bismuth                       [¢bizməθ]                               висмут

Bk – berkelium                    [  bə: ki¢liəm]                         беркелий

Br – bromine                       [¢broumi: n]                           бром

C – carbon                           [¢kα: bən]                              углерод

Ca – calcium                        [¢kælsiəm]                             кальций    

Ce – cerium                          [¢si: riəm]                              церий

Cd – cadmium                     [¢kædmiəm]                           кадмий

Cf – californium                  [ kæli¢fɔ: niəm]                     калифорний

Cl – chlorine                        [¢klɔ:ri:n]                              хлор

Cm – curium                        [¢kju:riəm]                             кюрий

Co – cobalt                           [kə¢bɔ:lt]                              кобальт

Cc – chromium                    [¢kroumjəm]                          хром

Cs – caesium (GB)               [¢si:zjəm]                               цезий 

Cs – cesium (US)                                                                       

Cu – copper                         [¢kɔpə]                                 медь 

Db – dubnium                     [¢d ubnjəm]                           дубний

Dy – dysprosium                 [dis¢prousiəm]                       диспрозий

Er – erbium                         [¢ə:biəm]                                эрбий

Es – einsteinium                   [ain¢stainiəm]                        эйнштейний

Eu – europium                     [ju:¢roupiəm]                         европий

F – fluorine                          [¢fluəri:n]                               фтор

Fe – ferrum=iron                 [¢ferəm], [¢aiən]                     железо                        

Fm – fermium                      [¢fə:miəm]                              фермий

Fr – francium                      [¢frænsiəm]                            франций

Ga – gallium                        [¢gæliəm]                               галлий     

Ge – germanium                  [ʤə:¢meiniəm]                       германий

Gd – gadolinium                 [ gædə¢liniəm]                       гадолиний

H – hydrogen                       [¢haidriʤən]                          водород

He – helium                          [¢hi:ljəm]                               гелий

Hf – hafnium                       [¢hæfniəm]                             гафний      

Hg – hydrargyrum=merсury [hai¢drα:ʤirəm],                 ртуть

                                                 [¢mə:kjuri]

Ho – holmium                      [¢houlmiəm]                          гольмий

Hs – hassium                        [¢hæsiəm]                              хассий

I – iodine                              [¢aiədi:n]                                йод

In – indium                          [¢indiəm]                               индий      

Ir – iridium                          [ai¢ridiəm]                             иридий

K – kalium=potassium        [¢keiliəm], [pə¢tæsjəm]           калий

Kr – krypton                       [¢kriptɔn]                             криптон

Ku – kurchatovium             [ kurt∫ə¢tɔviəm]                    курчатовий

La – lanthanum                   [¢lænθənəm]                          лантан

Li – lithium                          [¢liθiəm]                                 литий

Lr – lawrencium                  [ِ lɔ:¢rensiəm]                        лоуренсий     

Lu – lutetium                       [lju:¢ti:∫əm]                            лютеций

Md – mendelevium              [ِ mendə¢leviəm]                     менделевий

Mg – magnesium                 [mæg¢ni:zjəm]                       магний

Mn – manganese                 [mæŋgə¢ni:z]                          марганец

Mo – molybdenum              [mɔ¢libdinəm]                      молибден  

Mt – meitnerium                  [mait¢neirəm],                       мейтнерий  

Nnitrogen                         [¢naitriʤən]                           азот

Na – natrium=sodium         [¢neutriəm], [¢soudjəm]          натрий

Nb – niobium                       [nai¢oubiəm]                          ниобий

Nd – neodymium                 [ ni: ə¢dimiəm]                       неодим

Ne – neon                             [¢ni: ən]                                 неон

Ni – nickel                            [¢nikl]                                    никель

No – nobelium                     [nou¢biliəm]                          нобелий

Np – neptunium                  [nep¢tju:njəm]                       нептуний

Ns – nilsborium                   [¢nilzbɔriəm]                        нильсборий

O – oxygen                           [¢ɔksiʤən]                            кислород

Os – osmium                        [¢ɔzmiəm]                             осмий

P – phosphorus                    [¢fɔsfərəs]                             фосфор

Pa – protactinium                [ proutæk¢tiniəm]                  протактиний

Pb – plumbum=lead            [¢plΛmbəm], [led]                  свинец

Pd – palladium                    [pə¢leidiəm]                           палладий

Pm – promethium               [prə¢mi: θjəm]                       прометий

Po – polonium                     [pə¢louniəm]                          полоний

Pr – praseodymium             [ preiziə¢dimiəm]                   празеодим      

Pt – platinum                       [¢plætinəm]                           платина

Pu – plutonium                    [plu:¢tounjəm]                       плутоний

Ra – radium                        [¢reidjəm]                              радий

Rb – rubidium                     [ru:¢bidiəm]                           рубидий

Re – rhenium                       [¢ri:niəm]                               рений

Rf – rutherfordium             [rʌve¢fodiəm]                       резерфордий

Rh – rhodium                      [¢roudjəm]                             родий     

Rn – radon                          [¢reidɔn]                               радон

Ru – ruthenium                   [ru:¢ θ:niəm]                          рутений

S – sulpher/sulfur(US)         [¢sΛlfə]                                   сера

Sb – antimony                     [¢æntiməni]                            сурьма

Sc – scandium                      [¢skændiəm]                          скандий   

Se – selenium                       [si¢li:njəm]                             селен

Sg – seaborgium                  [si¢bo: giəm]                          сиборгий

Si – silicon                            [¢silikən]                                кремний

Sm – samarium                   [sə¢mεəriəm]                          самарий

Sn – stannum=tin                [¢stænəm]                              олово

Sr – strontium                      [¢strɔn∫jəm]                          стронций

Ta – tantalum                      [¢tæntələm]                            тантал      

Tb – terbium                        [¢tə:biəm]                               тербий

Tc – technetium                   [tek¢ni:∫iəm]                           технеций

Te – tellurium                      [te¢ljuəriəm]                           теллур

Th – thorium                       [¢θɔ:riəm]                             торий

Ti – titanium                        [ti¢teinjəm]                            титан

Tl – thallium                        [¢θæliəm]                               таллий

Tm – thulium                       [¢tΛliəm]                                туллий

U – uranium                        [juə¢reinjən]                           уран            

V – vanadium                      [və¢neidjəm]                          ванадий

W – wolfram=tungsten       [¢wulfrəm], [¢tΛŋstən]            вольфрам

Xe – xenon                           [¢zenɔn]                                ксенон

Y – yttrium                          [¢itriəm]                                 иттрий

Yb – ytterbium                    [i¢tə:bjəm]                              иттербий         

Zn – zinc                              [ziŋk]                                     цинк

Zr – zirconium                     [zə:¢kounjəm]                        цирконий

 

 

Appendix 12. Reading Chemical Formulas

Буквы латинского алфавита, обозначающие названия элементов, читаются так же, как буквы латинского алфавита, например:   - [eitòtu:ou]

O [ou], Al [¢ei ¢el], Hg [¢eitò ¢dgʤi:]

HCl [¢eitò ¢si: ¢el]

CO2 [¢si: ¢ou ¢tu:]     

2KCl  [¢tu: ¢molikju:lz  əv  ¢kei ¢si: ¢el]

Знак + читается: plus, and или together with

Знак = читается: give или form (здесь знак = означает равенство)

Знак ® читается: give, pass over to или lead to

Знак        читается: forms или is formed from, либо reversibly

            [¢si: ¢ou ¢tu: ¢plΛs ¢si: ¢ei ¢ou ¢giv ¢si: ¢ei ¢si: ¢ou ¢θri:]

                    [¢en ¢tu: ¢plΛs ¢θri: ¢molikju:lz  əv ¢eitò ¢tu:

                          ¢fo:m  ənd  α: ¢fɔ:md  frɔm ¢tu: ¢mɔlikju:lz  əv ¢en

                                          ¢eitò ¢θri:]

            [¢si: ¢tu: ¢eitò ¢fɔ: ¢plΛs ¢si: ¢el ¢tu: ¢giv ¢si: ¢tu: ¢eitò ¢fɔ:

                                          ¢si: ¢el ¢tu:]

        [¢fɔ: ¢mɔlikju:lz  əv ¢eitò ¢si: ¢el ¢plΛs ¢ou ¢tu: ¢giv ¢tu:  ¢mɔlikju:lz  əv ¢si: ¢el ¢tu: ənd ¢tu: ¢mɔlikju:lz  əv ¢eitò ¢tu: ¢ou]

                [¢ei ¢si: ¢ou ¢eitò ¢fɔ:mz ənd iz ¢fɔ:md frəd ¢ei ¢si:

                                          ¢ɔksiʤən ¢aiən ¢plΛs ¢haidriʤən ¢aiən]

 - acyloxy ion  (acetate anion)              

 - hydrogen ion [¢haidriʤən ¢aiən]    или univalent positive hydrogen ion или protone

 - negative chlorine ion или negative univalent chlorine ion или chloride

Знак “ - “ или “ : ” обозначает одну связь, не читается 

                                                  Cl

          или          Cl - C - Cl                   [¢si: ¢si: ¢el¢fɔ:]

                                               Cl

Знак “=” или “::” обозначает две связи, не читается

          или       O=C=O  [¢si: ¢ou ¢tu]

            H                                                           O

                

C         C         C                                        C           OH

                                                       

            H                                                   C           OH

                                                                                  

                                                                                      O    

[¢si: ¢θri: ¢eitò ¢tu:]                                       [¢si: ¢tu: ¢ou ¢tu: ¢ou¢eitò ¢tu:] 

 

 

Appendix 13. Thermal Expansion, Temperature

temperature (n.)                                A property of an object that indicates in which direction heat energy will flow if the object is placed in thermal contact with another object. Heat energy flows from places of higher temperature to places of lower temperature.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics (n.)  If two bodies X and Y are each separately in thermal equilibrium with another body Z, then they are in thermal equilibrium with one another. In the most common case the body Z is a thermometer.                                  

temperature scale (n.)                        A sequence of values which represent temperature. Such a sequence is usually obtained by choosing two fixed points (identified by specified properties of stated substances) between which there are subdivisions made on a chosen basis. The Celsius scale has 99 divisions between the melting point of pure water and the boiling point of pure water.

Celsius scale (n.)                                  A temperature scale for which the ice point is at 0° and the steam point is at 100°. One Celsius degree is defined as 1/100 of the temperature interval between the ice point and the steam point.

Centigrade scale (n.)                            The name  formerly  used  for  the  Celsius

                                                               scale. The name is not now used in SI units but is often used by meteorologists.

Fahrenheit scale (n.)                               A temperature scale for which the ice point is at 32° F and the steam point at 212°F. Originally the zero was obtained in a freezing mixture and another point was fixed at 96° for blood temperature.            

Reaumur scale (n.)                   A  temperature  scale  in  which  the  ice            point is at 0° and the steam point at 80°.    

ideal gas scale (n.)                                     A scale in  which  changes of  temperature are measured either by changes of pressure, or changes of volume, for gases operating at pressure low enough for the gases to behave as ideal gases.

thermodynamic scale (n.)                           A temperature scale which does not depend upon the working properties of any substance. The ideal gas scale is identical with this scale.

absolute   scale    (n.)                      A thermodynamic  temperature  scale  in which the lower fixed   point   is  absolute  zero   of temperature and the interval is identic with that on the Celsius scale. The temperature on the absolute scale is obtained by adding to θ, the Celsius temperature, 1/ a  where a is the coefficient of expansion of a gas at constant pressure. This gives a scale on which the ice point is 273∙15°;  i.e.  °A = °C + 273∙15.

The absolute scale was often called the Kelvin scale and temperatures measured in
°A or °K. In SI units temperature is measured in kelvins (K) by defining the
triple point of water as 273∙16 K. The ice point is then 273∙15 K. The kelvin has the
same size as the degree absolute.                     

fixed points (n.pl.)                                         Those points on a temperature scale which are fixed and which can be referred to a given property of a substance. The two main fixed points are the ice point and the steam point.

ice point (n.)                                      That fixed point on a temperature scale at       which pure solid water (ice) and pure liquid water are in equilibrium at 101 325 N m-2 (760 mm Hg). It may be more simply described as the melting point of pure ice at standard pressure (101 325 N m-2  or  760 mm Hg).

steam point (n.)                                             That fixed point on a temperature scale at   which pure water boils at standard pressure (101 325 N m-2; 760 mm Hg). This is 100° on the Celsius scale.

zinc point (n.)                                            A fixed point on an international temperature scale, fixed at the temperature at which zinc changes from liquid to solid (the freezing point of zinc) at standard pressure        (101 325 N m-2). This corresponds to 419∙58 °C.

international temperature scale (n.) A practical scale which is as near as possible
to the thermodynamic scale but easily referable to a series of fixed points.

Triple point of Hydrogen

Boiling point of Neon

Triple point of oxygen

Boiling point of oxygen

Triple point of water

Boiling point of water

Freezing point of zinc oil

      -  259∙34 °C 

- 246∙048 °C

- 218∙789 °C

- 182∙962 °C

0∙01°C

100∙0 °C

419∙58 °C

Free/ing point of silver

Freezing point of gold

      961∙93 °C

  1064∙43 °C

 

                     

Below 630°C platinum resistance thermometer; up to 1064 °C a thermocouple or special platinum resistance thermometer; above 1064 °C  a  radiation pyrometer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KEYS:

MODULE 1. READING AND SUMMARIZING INFORMATION

TASK 1

1) j; 2) k; 3) i; 4) g; 5) h; 6) n; 7) o; 8) c; 9) m; 10) f; 11) e; 12) e; 13) d; 14) b;15) a

TASK 2

Sample review

The article under review is entitled “The bionic age begins”. It was published in the “Discover” magazine in 2005.

The article deals with the problem of using computer chips that can compensate for memory loss. The purpose of the research is to make a reliable, long-term connection between the hardware and the wetware, i.e. to create devices that employ electrodes to receive signals from and transmit them to the brain. It is shown that several groups of researchers have begun carrying out experiments on patients and even on animals. Special emphasis is placed on the fact that similar devices may be able to treat blindness, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. A detailed description is given to the design of such devices as well as to the way they work.

For me this article is of general interest but of no professional significance, because I do research in the field of computer simulation. In my opinion it may be of interest to research teams engaged in studying bionic brain.

 

module 4. Writing Letters

Unit 1

Assoc. Prof. Smirnov

Department of Physics                                                            

Southern Federal University

5 Zorge St.

Rostov-on-Don, 344090

Russia

 

February 21, 2010

Dear Dr. Johnson,

I wish to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of April 6 and to thank you for sending me the reprints.

I am now completing my experimental investigation and as soon as I work over my results I will prepare another contribution and send it to you for publication.

Looking forward to further cooperation.

Yours sincerely,

(signature)

V. Smirnov

 

Unit 2

Dear Professor…,

I'm writing to you in my capacity as Program Committee Co-Chair for the International Scientific Conference “Modern Problems of Microbiology and Biotechnology” to be held in Hamburg from October 1-8, 2010. I am writing to ask whether you would be willing to present a talk at the conference as an invited speaker. Invited talks will be one hour long, including a 10 minute question-answer session.

We have not yet established on which day your talk will be scheduled; should you accept this invitation, there is some flexibility we can use to accommodate your own scheduling preferences (although it would be on one of the main conference session days, Tuesday, October 3 through Friday, October 6.

In appreciation of your agreement to provide an invited talk, the Organizing Committee of the ISC would provide the cost of an economy class airfare from your home institution to the conference, hotel accommodations during the conference and free registration to the conference.

Unfortunately I will be away for an extended period of time and will not be able to read my email on a regular basis during this time. So, please, contact Professor Martha Palmer, an area chair and member of the ISC-2008 program committee, in your response. She has kindly agreed to coordinate the invited speaker sessions during my absence.

I do very much hope that you will be able to accept this invitation.

Sincerely yours,

(Signature)

Program Committee Chairman

 

Unit 3

Dear James Smith,

I’m sorry I have not replied earlier to your letter and must apologize for not sending you the reprint you asked about until now. Unfortunately, I could not give proper consideration to your letter as I had to leave Russia on business for a month.

It gives me great pleasure to send you the reprint.  I hope you will find the reprint helpful in your experiment. As soon as you get the final results of your experimental work, I would be grateful if you could send them to me as I wish to use them for plotting curves.

I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours sincerely,

Name

 

 

Unit 4

Dear Sir,

I am a long-time reader of the “Physical Review” and enjoy reading your papers. In the October issue of the journal of I’ve read your paper entitled… The investigation you are carrying out is of great interest for me and the methods you employ are excellent. I am writing to you to inquire whether it would be possible to get further information on your research from you personally. 

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours sincerely,

Name

 

Unit 5

Dear Sir,

         I wish to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of April 6 informing about the deadline for the publication of the papers. I am most grateful to you for sending me your kind suggestion to collaborate with your journal and from the list of topics enclosed I have chosen … and will present a paper under the title … on time.

Sincerely yours,

Name

 

Module 6. Grammar Section

Unit 1

  1. Мощность - это скорость, с которой расходуется энергия, или скорость с которой выполняется работа.
  2. Преимущество этого метода признавалось многими учеными.
  3. В этой главе рассматриваются некоторые свойства металлов.
  4. Все силы принято считать активными и реактивными, если о них говорят, как о силах, действующих одновременно.
  5. Были приняты определенные меры, для того чтобы уменьшить вес механической части.
  6. На результаты оказало влияние наличие примесей.
  7. Для того чтобы преодолеть эти трудности была выполнена огромная экспериментальная работа нашими учеными.
  8. За анализом последует обзор экспериментальных данных.
  9. Эти смеси относят к газам.

10.  На солнечную радиацию воздействует магнитное поле Земли.

 

Unit 2

  1. Понять это явление это значит понять свойства атомов.
  2. В этой статье, по-видимому, существует путаница в терминах.
  3. Пытаясь преодолеть эти трудности, специалисты провели большую экспериментальную работу.
  4. Этот метод был такой точный, что дал надежные результаты.
  5. Считалось, что он испытывал острый интерес как к химии, так и к математике.
  6. Потребовалось еще несколько опытов, чтобы ученый мог доказать правильность полученных результатов.
  7. Этот метод был такой точный, что дал надежные результаты.
  8. Существует много примеров, которые поясняют (поясняющих) это правило. (Многие примеры поясняют…)
  9. Наука, как известно, влияет на жизни людей.

10.  Условия, на которых надо настаивать, заключаются в следующем.

 

Unit 3

  1. Таяние льда начинается при 0̊ С.
  2. За последнее время человеку удалось добиться контроля над химическими реакциями (человек научился управлять).
  3. Проводя эксперимент, они заметили изменение в свойствах вещества. При проведении…..
  4. Маловероятно, чтобы у той планеты была атмосфера.
  5. Нельзя не признать важность этого исследования.
  6. Эти вещества сходны тем, что имеют высокие точки плавления.
  7. Несмотря на то, что у Фарадея не было университетского образования, он сделал свои великие открытия. (Несмотря на отсутствие университетского образования, Фарадей…)
  8. Это явление зависит от того, что удельные веса этих веществ одинаковы.
  9. Компьютеры получают все более широкое применение благодаря тому, что их непрерывно совершенствуют.

10.  То, что Рентген открыл рентгеновские лучи, было большим вкладом в мировую науку.

 

Unit 4

  1. После того как опыты были закончены, мы начали новые исследования.
  2. Проведя измерения, экспериментатор затем обработал данные. (После того как экспериментатор провел измерения, он обработал данные.)
  3. Работа, выполненная этим ученым, дала хорошие результаты.
  4. Это вещество было более ценно, чем вещество, полученное  предшествующими авторами.
  5. Исследованное вещество содержало примеси.
  6. Поскольку (так как) вещество было взвешено недостаточно точно, его нельзя было использовать в количественном анализе.
  7. Оборудование, необходимое (которое необходимо) для проведения эксперимента, было тщательно проверено.
  8. Так как скорость света очень велика, мы не можем измерить ее обычными методами.
  9. Статья, обсужденная вчера на уроке, имеет отношение к проблеме геологии.

10.  Энергия, расходуемая за одну секунду, пропорциональна частоте.

Unit 5

  1. Скорость частицы должна постоянно изменяться, если эта частица движется неравномерно.
  2. Однако они столкнулись с неотложными проблемами, которые им пришлось решать настолько тщательно, насколько они могли.
  3. Вы могли бы сделать эксперимент тщательнее.
  4. Для того что бы понять важность этого открытия, студент должен знать все факты, связанные с историей этой проблемы.
  5. Им не нужно использовать такие сложные модели, так как есть более простые и хорошие.
  6. Они могли бы сделать это осторожнее.
  7. Следует быть очень осторожным при использовании сильных кислот.
  8. Не может быть, чтобы он допустил такую серьезную ошибку.
  9. Должно быть (вероятно), в программе были допущены некоторые ошибки.
  10. Упрощение как метод (необходимый для понимания) понимания может и должно быть средством усвоения знаний в любой науке.

 

Unit 6

  1. Он потребовал, чтобы прибор тщательно проверили.
  2. Важно, чтобы он высказал свои замечания по этому вопросу.
  3. Важно, чтобы современные средства коммуникации соответствовали требованиям экономики.
  4. Очень важно, чтобы все большее количество радиотелескопов применялось для астрономических наблюдений и измерений.
  5. Мы настаиваем на том, чтобы такие данные нашли применение в дальнейшей работе.
  6. Необходимо, чтобы соблюдался этот закон.
  7. Он посоветовал, чтобы вопрос обсудили немедленно.
  8. Мы настаивали на том, что такие действия могли бы дать некоторую информацию об этом событии.
  9. Они применяли новые методы работы, чтобы не снизилась производительность.

10.  Инженер потребовал, чтобы были приняты во внимание параметры двигателя.

 

Unit 7

  1. Если бы кислота была очищена, то реакция произошла бы.
  2. Если бы он применил эту формулу, он бы не сделал этой ошибки.
  3. Мы не смогли бы решить уравнение, если бы не применили новый метод.
  4. Если бы была жизнь на Венере, мы знали бы об этом.
  5. Они могли бы это сделать, если бы получили необходимое оборудование.
  6. Если мы не будем повышать температуру, то давление не возрастет.
  7. Если бы он не прошел успешно курс обучения, он не смог бы помочь группе справиться с проблемой.
  8. Если бы не было атмосферы, температура Земли поднялась бы до 200̊ F.
  9. Если бы радио не было изобретено в 19 веке, мы не смогли бы создать телевидение в 20 веке.
  10. Если в нашей лаборатории будет лазерное оборудование, мы сможем начать исследования в ближайшем будущем.

 

 

 

LIST OF MATERIALS USED

  1. James O. Lester “Writing Research Papers”, a Complete Guide. Seventh Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, 1995.
  2. Rise B. Axelrod, Charles R. Cooper “The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing”, Short Edition, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1986.
  3. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. Revised and updated. A.S. Hornby with A.P. Cowie. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988.
  4. A. Godman, M.F. Payne. Longman Dictionary of Scientific Usage. The Reprint Edition. Longman Group Limited, Harlow;  Russky Yazyk Publishers. Moscow, 1987.

5.  Андрюхова Н.А., Гуменюк О.А., Добрякова Л.Е., Прохорова О.Е., Синкевич Е.Н. Тексты для подготовки к сдаче кандидатского минимума. Методическая разработка по английскому языку для аспирантов и магистров. ТГТУ, кафедра иностранных языков. Тверь 2003 г.

  1. Вознесенская И.Б. Пособие по корреспонденции на английском языке. Проведение и организация научной конференции. Л.: Наука, 1981
  2. Т. Ю. Дроздова, А. И. Берестова, В. Г. Маилова “English Grammar” Reference and Practice. Antology Edition, 2005.
  3. http://www.askoxford.com/betterwriting/letterwriting/?view=uk
    1. http://www.vienna.cc/networld/sample_letter/free_letter_sample.htm

10.  http://depts.washington.edu/psywc/handouts/pdf/summarizing.pdf

11.  http://www.aui.ma/personal/~A.Cads/1204/materials/summarizingResearchArticle.pdf

12.  http://faculty.caldwell.edu/sreeve/ED%20556%20Article%20Summary%20Presentation.ppt

13.  http://www.newscientist.com/section/science-news